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Flashcards in Reproductive System Deck (193)
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Sexual reproduction

The process by which organisms produce offspring by means of gametes.

1

Gametes

Sperm and eggs

2

Gonads

Produce gametes.

Testes and ovaries

3

Testes

Gonad

Produces sperm and secretes hormones.

4

Scrotum

Cutaneous out-pouching that supports the testes

5

Dartos muscle

Muscle found in scrotal septum that causes wrinkling in scrotum.

6

How much cooler than body temp do sperm require to live?

Three degrees cooler.

7

Cremaster muscle

In spermatic cord

Elevates testes when cold or aroused.

8

Tunica vaginalis

Serous membrane derived from the peritoneum. Forms when testicles descend.

Partially covers testes.

9

Tunica albuginea

In testis. Internal to tunica vaginalis.

Extends inward. Forma septa that divides testis into 200-300 lobules.

10

Hydrocele

Pathology. Collection of fluid in tunica vaginalis.

11

Testicular lobule

Contains 2-3 seminiferous tubules
where spermatogenesis occurs.

12

Seminiferous tubules

Site of spermatogenesis.

Contained within lobule.

Contains two cell types:
1. Spermatogenic
2. Sertoli

13

Spermatogenic cells

Stem cell within seminiferous tubules

Primordial sperm cells --> spermatogonia --> primary spermatocytes --> secondary spermatocytes --> spermatid

14

Sertoli cells

AKA sustenacular cells

Support spermatogenesis in the testes

Form blood-testis barrier
Release inhibit, regulate testosterone and FSH
Produce fluid for sperm transport
Phagocytose excess spermatid cytoplasm
Protect, support and nourish developing sperm
Release sperm into lumen of seminiforous tubules.

15

Leydig cells

AKA interstitial cells of the testis

Located in between seminiferous tubules

Produce and secrete androgens, especially testosterone.

16

Descent of Testes

Testes develop near kidney and descend into scrotum through inguinal canal during 7th month of development.

17

Cryptorchidism

Failure of testes to descend

18

Pathway of sperm through ducts:

Seminiferous tubules
Straight tubules
Rete testis
Efferent ducts
Ductus epididymis
Vas deferens

19

Epididymis

1.5 inches long -- 20 feet if uncoiled
Along posterior borders of testes

Multiple efferent ducts --> ductus epididymis --> vas deferens

20

Ductus epididymis: histology & function

Bulk of epididymis

Lined with pseudo stratified microvilli'd columnar epithelial cells and a layer of smooth muscle

Site of sperm maturation and storage (up to 1-2 months). The either expulsion or reabsorption.

21

Vasectomy involves cutting/cauterizing of:

Vas deferens

22

Spermatic cord

All structures passing to/from testes.

Testicular artery
Vas deferens
Paminiform plexus of veins
Autonomic nerves
Lymphatic vessels
Cremaster muscle.

23

Ejaculatory ducts

Seminal ducts + vas deferens

Eject spermatozoa into prostatic urethra

Also adds fluid

24

Urethra

8 inch passage for urine and sperm

Prostatic (through prostate)
Membranous (through UG diaphragm)
Spongy (through corpus spongiosum)

25

Inguinal canal

2 inch tunnel/weak spot in the three muscles of anterior abdominal wall.

Deep inguinal to superficial ring.

Passageway for spermatic cord and iliolingual nerve.

26

Hernia

Rupture or separation of a portion of the abdominal wall resulting in protrusion of part of an organ. (Most often intestine).

27

Indirect hernia

Loop of intestine protruding through deep ring

28

Direct hernia

Loop of intestine pushing through posterior wall of inguinal canal

30

Seminal Vesicles

Pair of pouch like organs found posterior to base of bladder.

Secretes alkaline, viscous fluid that contains fructose (for ATP), prostaglandins and clotting proteins.