Flashcards in Unit 9 Deck (11)
What is Consistency Criterion?
That the meaning of terms in an argument is consistent.
What is a lexical definition?
A lexical definition is a sort of definition given in dictionaries. It describe how people use words or terms.
What is a theoretical definition?
Theoretical is a definition that form part of conceptual or empirical theories. It states the nature of a thing being defined. Often, theoretical definitions are modified or rejected as theories change.
What is criteria in a context of a conceptual theory?
Criteria in the context of a conceptual theory are easily recognizable features that will allow us to determine whether a certain thing falls under a certain concept.
What is a difference between a definition and criteria?
Let's take death as an example. The definition of death is "cessation of vital functions". The criteria for death are often debatable in each specific context. For example is a person dead when he/she is not functioning but is bed-ridden and life is maintained by mechanical means? Is the person dead when brain is still functioning but all other organs failed? These are criteria for death in some cases but not in others.
What are ways of criticizing a conceptual theory?
1. Presenting a counterexample.
2. Pointing out that the theory uses concepts that are as difficult to understand as the concept being explained.
3. Showing that the theory contains incompatible conditions.
What is an example of "presenting a counterexample" criticism of a conceptual theory?
If for example the theory goes as follows:
An object is a work of art if and only if:
(1) It is made by an artist
(2) It expresses the emotions of the artist.
This theory can be criticized in 2 ways:
1. Describing an object that is clearly a work of art but does not satisfy the two conditions.
2. Describing an object that is not a work of art but does satisfy the conditions.
The example of a first case would be a painting with a purely geometrical design expressing no emotions. And the example of the second one is a letter written by an artist to his family that expresses his\her emotions.
When is definition too narrow?
When there are things to which the concept applies but the definition does not cover those things.
When is the definition too broad?
When the definition applies to things to which the concept being defined does not apply.
What is the example of "too narrow" definition?
A vehicle is a transportation machine that is piloted by a driver.
This definition is too narrow as it does not cover driverless cars.