Flashcards in Unit 4 Deck (15)
What is proposition?
Preposition is a statement that expresses a judgement or opinion.
What are syllogisms that have either one premise or an argument missing called?
What is enthymeme?
A syllogism that has either one premise or a conclusion missing.
What is a categorical proposition?
Categorical propositions claim that some or all of a certain kind of thing have or don't have a certain characteristic or property.
What is a universal proposition?
In a universal proposition we assert something about all of the things of a kind.
What is a particular proposition?
In a particular proposition we assert something about some of the things of a kind.
What is a syllogism?
Syllogism is a deductive argument that consists of three categorical propositions which contain 3 terms, each of which appears in two different propositions.
What are the steps of testing a syllogism with Venn diagram?
1. Diagram both premises. Always diagram the universal premises first and then diagram any particular claim.
2. Determine whether the conclusion has been diagrammed in the process of diagramming the premises.
What is copula?
Copula is a word linking the subject and the predicate of the sentence. In the sentence "The sky is blue" - "is" is a copula.
What are the steps to add the missing part of an enthymeme?
1. Formulate the terms of the argument.
2. Write the stated part of the argument in a standard categorical form.
3. Determine which two terms appear only once in the stated part of the argument.
4. Formulate the missing part of the argument using the two terms from step three.
What are four types of categorical proposition?
A: All S are P | AffirmO
I: Some S are P | AffirmO
E: No S is P | nEgO
O Some S are not P | nEgO
What are the terms of a categorical proposition?
The terms of a categorical proposition are the words or phrases that indicate the subject of the proposition (the thing that is being talked about) and the property that the subject has or does not have.
What is the structure of a categorical proposition?
Quantifier + subject term + copula + predicate term.
What are two possible qualities of a categorical proposition?
Two possible qualities of a categorical proposition are: - Affirmative