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Flashcards in Unit 4 Deck (21)
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1

Informal fallacies

errors in reasoning that do not involve the explicit use of an invalid form

2

abusive ad hominem

direct personal attack on the opponent

3

Circumstantial ad hominem

attempts to discredit by calling attention to the circumstances or situation of the opponent

4

tu quoque

charges the opponent with hypocrisy or inconsistency

5

Argument against the person (ad hominem fallacy)

Premise: instead of providing a rational critique of a statement, attack the person who advances it
Conclusion: the statement is false and dubious

6

Straw man fallacy

Premises: a misrepresentation of the view is false
Conclusion: The view itself is false

7

Appeal to force (ad baculum fallacy)

Premises: You can avoid harm by accepting the statement
Conclusion: This statement is true

8

Appeal to people (ad populum fallacy)

Premises: You will be accepted or valued if you believe this statement
Conclusion: The statement is true

9

Appeal to pity (ad misericoriam fallacy)

Premises: You have reason to pity this person (or group)
Conclusion: You should do X for the benefit of this person, although doing X is not called logically by the reason given

10

Appeal to Ignorance (ad ignorantiam fallacy)

Premises This statement has not been proven true
Conclusion: This statement is false

Premises: This statement has not been proven false
Conclusion: This statement is true (or reasonably believed to be so

11

Equivocation

Premises: Contain a key word that is ambiguous
Conclusion: is reached not by valid logical inference but by trading on the ambiguity of the key word

12

amphiboly

Premises: Contain a sentence that is ambiguous due to faulty structure
Conclusion: Is reached not by valid logical inference but by trading on the structural ambiguity

13

Composition

Premises: The parts have attribute X
Conclusion: The whole group has attribute X

14

Division

Premises: The whole has attribute X
Conclusion: The parts have attribute X

15

Begging the Question (petitio principia)

Assuming the point to be proved. The premises are similar in content to the conclusion but not better known than the conclusion

16

False Dilemma

Using a premise that unjustifiably reduces the number of alternatives to be considered

17

Appeal to unreliable authority (ad verecundiam fallacy)

Appealing to an authority when the reliability of the authority may reasonably be doubted

18

False cause fallacy

Illegitimately assuming that one possible cause of a phenomenon is a cause although reasons are lacking for excluding other possible causes

19

Fallacy of Complex Question

asking a question that illegitimately presupposes some conclusion alluded to in the question

20

Fallacies

Errors in reasoning tend tone psychologically persuasive

21

Formal fallacies

The explicit use of an invalid form