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Flashcards in Unit 2 and 3 Deck (31)
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1

Unsupported assertions

are not arguments. Examples: reports, illustrations, explanations, and conditionals

2

Report

set of statements intended to provide info about a situation, topic, or event

3

Illustration

statement together with an explanatory or clarifying example

4

explanatory statement

provides a reason for the occurrence of some phenomenon

5

Conditional statements

taken by themselves, are not technically arguments

6

well-crafted arguments

arguments stated in such a way that their important logical features are explicit

7

Well-crafted versions

making a bad argument into a good one

8

Statements

sentences that are either true or false

9

Premise Indicators

words that indicate the premise is following.
Examples: because, since, for, as, after all, the reason is that, in light of the fact that, and based on the fact that

10

Conclusion indicators

Signal conclusions
Examples: so, therefore, consequently, etc.

11

Standard form

Put conditional premises or conclusions in form
If A then B

12

Discount

Acknowledgement of a fact or possibility that might be thought to render the argument invalid, weak, unsound, or uncogent

13

Rhetorical elements

elements that increases an arguments psychological persuaviness without affecting its validity, strength, soundness, or cogency

14

Assurance

a statement, word, or phrase that indicates that the author is confident of a premise or inference

15

Hedge

statement, word, or phrase that indicates that the arguer is tentative about a premise or inference
Examples: I think that, in my opinion, and perhaps

16

Subconclusion

Is supported by a premise, but it also supports at least one further statement

17

Proposition

a truth or a falsehood that may or may not be expressed in a sentence

18

Cognitive meaning

the extent that a sentence conveys info

19

Emotive force

the extent that a sentence expresses or elicits emotions

20

Vague

imprecise word

21

Extension

consists of the set of things to which the term applies

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Intension

the properties a thing must have in order to be included in the terms extension

23

Ostensive Definition

Defining by pointing to

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enumerative definition

names the members of the extension individually

25

lexical definition

reports the conventional or established intension of a term

26

Stipulative definition

specifies the intension of a term independently of convention or established use

27

Precising Definition

reduces the vagueness of a term by imposing limits on the conventional meaning

28

Definiendum

a word being defined

29

definiens

the word or word that do the defining

30

Merely Verbal Dispute

occurs when two or more disputants appear to disagree but an ambiguous word hides the fact that the disagreement is unreal