Theme 1 - Arguments for the existence of God Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Theme 1 - Arguments for the existence of God Deck (39)
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1

A posteriori

on the basis of experience, used for an argument, such as the cosmological argument, that is based on experience or empirical evidence

2

a priori

without, or prior to, experience. very similar to deductive reasoning. The truth can be established by logic alone, there is no need for empirical evidence.

e.g
- bachelors are unmarried men
- john is a bachelor
- therefore, John is an unmarried man

3

aesthetic

relating to beauty

4

St Anselm

11th-century Archbishop of Canterbury who fomulated the ontological argument to demonstrate that Gods existence can be proved on the basis of reason alone

5

Anthropic argument

a teleological argument that claims that nature has been carefully designed for the needs of humans

6

St Thomas Aquinas

13th Century Catholic Theologian. Developed 'five ways' which prove the existence of God.

7

Classical Theism

the belief in a personal deity, creator of everything that exists but who is distinct from that creation.

8

contingent beings

beings that depend upon something else for their existence

9

cosmological argument

the argument for the existence of God based on the existence of the Universe

10

William Lane Craig

A Christian apologist who is a proponent of the modern day Kalam argument

11

cumulative arguments

a collection of arguments which, when clumped together, provide a stronger case than they do alone

12

deductive arguments

an argument in which, if the premises are true, then the conclusion must also be true. Similar to a priori

13

Rene Descartes,

a proponent of the ontological argument who draws upin ideas of contingency and necessity as well as the perfection of existence

14

efficient cause

that which causes change and motion to start and to stop - in many cases this is simply the thing that brings something about

15

empiricism

the view that the dominant foundation of knowledge is experience

16

essence

the essential nature of something

17

existential

relating to existence

18

ex nihilo

a Latin phrase meaning "out of nothing". Refers to the belief that God did not use any previously existing material during creation.

19

Gaunilo

criticised Anselm with the 'perfect island' analogy

20

inductive argument

an argument constructed on possibly true premises reaching a logically possible and persuasive conclusion - similar to a posteriori

21

infinite regression

a chain of causes that can never come to an end

22

intelligent design

the view that an intelligent cause accounts for certain features of the Universe.

23

Kalam Argument

a form of the Cosmological argument that rests of the idea that the Universe had a beginning in time

24

Immanuel Kant,

German Philosopher and critic of the ontological argument

25

Norman Malcolm

argued for a form of the ontological argument where God exists as an unlimited being and concluded that God exists necessarily.

26

motion

In Aquinas's first way of motion it refers to the process by which an object acquires a new form

27

natural selection

with each slight variation, if proved useful, it is preserved and the trait passed on to the next generation.

28

necessary beings

beings which, if they exist, cannot not exist. Not dependent on anything else for their existence.

29

omnipotence

the characteristic of being all powerful

30

omniscience

the characteristic of being all knowing