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what does Mackie argue against hicks theodicy

-'could not our world be a little more hospitable and still teach us what we need to know ?'

-God could have given us the choice to do good with limited potential for evil

-he could have created a world where I still have the choice not to hurt someone, but it is impossible for me to organise the genocide of 6 million Jews

-why must we learn only through pain


Swinburnes argument against theodicy

-if God limited suffering then it would be a 'toy world where things matter, but not very much'

-God would be like an over protective parent not allowing his child out of his sight for a moment

-he argues that the level of suffering is however limited because there is death

-if we were immortal, then we would not have to take responsibility for our actions because there is always another chance, so we can go on and on causing death and mayhem

-by limiting our lifespan, we only have a limited chance


why does D.Z. Phillip argue against Hick's theodicy ?

-he disagrees with hick by suggesting that true love doesn't use evil as a means to an end or for a purpose

-God is omnibenevolent and thus don't create or use evil


process theodicy has an alternative solution to the problem of evil. What is it?

-denies that God is omnipotent

-God started the world off but cannot control it or solve evil

-however, God suffers alongside his creation and empathises with us


D.Z. Phillips argument against hick

- true love doesn’t use evil as a means to an end or for a purpose. God is omnibenevolent and thus doesn’t create or use evil


How does Brian Davies support Augustine

Evil is a gap between what there is and what there ought to be


what is a theodicy ?

attempts to define God despite the existence of evil and suffering in the world


key words for Augustine theodicy

free will
natural and moral evil
repent and accept
should making


key words for Hicks theodicy

epistemic distance
natural laws
soul making
universal salvation


how does Augustine's theodicy defend God ?

- God couldn't create evil as evil isn't a substance

- angels disobeyed God which lead to the fall of angels which created natural evil as punishment for humans . Not Gods fault

- sin entered the world through Adam and Eve disobeyed God. Humans are responsible for evil


primarily, according to Augustine's theodicy, who is to blame for evil ?

Angels and humans


How could it be argued that Augustine's theodicy doesn't get God of the hook ?

- since the perfect world went wrong it could be argued that God isn't off the hook as either the world wasn't perfect to start with or God made it go wrong


how does the free will defence support Hicks theodicy

- humans must be genuine my free to choose how they want to reposed to God

- it is out of free will that we disobey God


3 advantages of process theodicy

- removes the question of God is all loving and omnipotent then why doesn't he stop evil as process theodicy answers this with 'he can't '

- the fact that God suffers encourages people as God can have a personal experience of what they are going through

- within process theodicy there is no certainty that God will triumph in the end so it therefore may encourage people to join in the fight against evil


three disadvantages of process theodicy

- the argument isn't a theodicy as all theodicies justify God but since it removes the concept of omnipotence in God, it doesn't justify him at all

- the conclusions is unacceptable on religious and philosophical grounds as it questions whether a being with such limited power would be worthy of worship

- the theodicy creates a despair for the future. If God cannot guarantee anything, what is the point of human efforts ?


criticism of Hicks use of free will

if we really have free will why can't be decide where we go after death ?

Hicks argues that there is universal salvation for everyone


who is responsible for evil according to Hicks theodicy and why ?

- God is responsible for evil

- because, God created the world with evil on it as pain is necessary since it teaches us certain values and allows free will