Flashcards in augustine on human nature Deck (59)
one important point on Augustine's background
-he kept a concubine but he had to give her up for a socially acceptable marriage
how is original sin different from actually sins?
because original sin is not just a description of human behaviour but an ontological condition of human existence
how is original sin passed on?
through sex. it is contracted, not commited.
why do humans have no control over original sin ?
-it contaminates us from birth
-humans have an innate sinful disposition
because of original sin...
there is a lack of stability and communication in all human societies
what did Augustine see original sin as?
-a moment of shift in basic human nature
-no one is truly good, however virtuous they appear to be
1. Augustine on human nature
-human nature is damaged by the fall. It is sinful
2. Augustine on sin
-Humans are incapable of avoiding sin. The will is now such that it has a tendency away from goodness
3. Augustine on guilt and original sin
-Adam's sin affects all of us. The fall transmits guilt to the whole human race. Human beings are sinful at birth
4. Augustine on death
death is the consequence and punishment for sin
5. Augustine on Grace
Humans cannot do any good deeds apart from God's grace
issues raised=is original sin inherited? If the Fall and Adam's sin an historical event?
I am going to be arguing that there are more weaknesses than strengths in Augustine's teachings of human nature
-define original sin
-Augustine's view on how original sin is inherited
-this raises the issues of wether original sin is inherited or deliberately chosen.
-Schleiermacher's biological error
-Part of Augustine's teachings on human nature is his idea of the human will
-define human will
-Supported by Second Vatican Council
-"Bound by chains" supported by Romans 7
-This is in contrast to Rousseau's view
-Augustine says that due to the Fall and Adam's sin we are more likely to do evil than good.
-but debatable wether the Fall was an historic event
-Genesis interpreted as myth
-Counter with Genesis as a myth shows that the Fall is still relevant today
-Outline Augustine's teachings on sex
-Supported by "most recognise today..."
-Freud's supporting view then his opposing view
-In conclusion it can be said that there are more weaknesses than strengths with Augustine's teachings on human nature.
-This is because it has been scientifically proven that we weren't all seminally present in Adam, evolutionary biology argues against an historical Fall and modern psychologists such as Freud oppose Augustine's teachings on sex
what is original sin?
-Original sin is different from actual sin as it is not just a description of human behaviour but an ontological condition of human existence.
-Due to original sin we are more likely to do evil than good
How is original sin passed on?
-Augustine believed that original sin is passed on to all generations through sex and so it contaminates us from birth.
-This means that we have an innately sinful disposition.
-However, Augustine's ideas on original sin raises the issue of wether original sin is inherited or deliberately chosen
What is Schleiermacher's view of original sin?
-In Augustine's original theodicy he claims that we were all seminally present in Adam do inherit the sinful nature.
-Schleiermacher would criticise Augustine saying he is making a biological error. It has been scientifically proven that we didn't all come from one person due to different races.
-This shows that Augustine's teachings on original sin are flawed since his ideas on how it is passed on is inaccurate
what is Pelagius' view on human nature?
-h would disagree with Augustine's view that original sin is inherited.
-He would argue that we become sinners not at birth but instead when we actually sin.
-We are only responsible for our own sins.
what is Augustine's teachings on the human will?
-The human will is made up of Cupiditas(self love) and Caritas (generous love of others)
-Augustine states that before the Fall man did things out of will, not lust, but after the Fall the human will is now controlled by Cupiditas
How is the idea of the human will supported by the Seocnd Vatican council
-affirms that "man is split within himself" which supports Augustine's idea of a divided will.
-"everyone feels as though he is bound by chains" which can be supported by the idea in Romans 7 that we are a "slave to the law on sin"
-It can therefore be concluded that Augustine's idea on humans being selfish and innately sinful is supported by other scholars.
what is Rousseau's view?
-"man is born free"
-disagrees with Augustine's idea that humans are naturally selfish.
-Alternatively believes that our purpose is to break these chains by learning to appreciate others
What does Augustine say due to the Fall...?
-Due to the Fall and Adam's sin we are more likely to do evil than good.
-However, it is debatable wether the Fall was an historic event or not.
What is Dawkin's view on wether the Fall was an historical event or not?
-would argue that due to evolution Adam and Eve would have started as lower life forms without consciousness so they wouldn't have been able to choose right from wrong.
-This suggest that there wasn't an historical Fall which consequently weakens Augustine's teachings on human nature
explain the point the Genesis is usually interpreted as a myth
-but Genesis is usually interpreted as a myth, not a literally account so it wouldn't matter if there wasn't a historical Fall
-The Fall is a symbolic moment in life when humans become aware of their journey towards God.
-However, if interpreted this way than the Fall is still relevant today
outline Augustine's different teachings on sex
-part of his teachings on human nature includes concupisence which refers to sexual desire as something bad in the soul that was insuperable from normal human sexual impulses
-also the idea of Concordia which is the easy, comfortable, relationship of friends that is said to be the case between Adam and Eve
-Augustine believe that after the Fall humans have sex out of lust not will
what supports Augustine's pessimistic view of sex ?
others who recognise today that misses of sex and relationships can often underline individual and social problems