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Flashcards in the problem of evil Deck (47)
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define moral evil

the result from an act or failure by humans. E.g. murder


define natural evil

Aries through no fault by humans. e.g. earthquakes


define the evidential problem

attempt to show that the existence of evil counts against the probability of the truth of theism.

The extent of suffering


define the logical problem of evil

states that it is impossible and irrational to believe in the existence of a good, powerful God with evil in the world.


what are the three characteristics of God and what are the definitions of them?

Omnibenevolent =good
omnipotent= great power
omniscient= all-knowing


define theism

the belief in the existence of a God or Gods who created the universe and intervenes with it.


describe the first point in the Augustinian Theodicy

-God is perfect and he created a perfect world with no evil in it.

-"God saw all that he made and it was very good"- Genesis (1:3)


describe the second point in the Augustian Theodicy

-Since God can't create evil, evil is not a thing in itself, but a privation of Good.

-if evil is an absence of good, then God cannot be responsible for its creation- it is not logical to say that God created an absence


describe the third point in the Augustinian Theodicy

-God gave humans free will but when they chose to disobey God they create an absence of good within themselves.

-The sin of Adam and Eve destroyed the state of perfect


describe the fourth point of the Augustinian Theodicy

-natural and moral evil entered the world (the doctrine of the fall of man)


describe the fifth point in the Augustinian Theodicy

all humans inherit the sinful nature of Adam and Eve since we were seminally present in Adam so deserve to be punished


describe the sixth point in the Augustinian Theodicy

-All evil is either sin or the punishment for sin. we all deserve to be punished because of the original sin.

-so God continues to allow evil


describe the seventh point in the Augustinian Theodicy (the role of Jesus)

God provides a solution in the person of Jesus who dies to save people from the penalty of Adam's sin


describe the eighth point in the Augustinian Theodicy

all humans who repent and accept the salvation Jesus brings will escape punishment. At the end of time all will be judged


explain the last point in the Augustinian Theodicy (soul-deciding)

the good will be rewarded with eternal happiness. The evil will receive their punishment. The individual chooses. Heaven or hell. This is soul deciding


describe schleiermacher's criticism that Augustine makes a logical error

How can a perfect world go wrong? Either the world wasn't perfect to start with or God made it go wrong.

Adam and Eve must have had some knowledge of evil to be able to choose it. Where did it come from? Implies there was already knowledge of good/evil.


describe Schleiermacher's criticism that Augustine makes a moral error.

concept as hell as part of design of universe; did God anticipate it would go wrong? Criticism as God supposedly made a perfect world.


describe Schleiermacher's criticism that Augustine makes a scientific error

-contradicts evaluation as the theodicy doesn't sound like evolution which states that everything is improving over time but the theodicy graphs shows that everything has gone downhill.

-Science has shown that we didn't all come from 1 person because of races. Shows that we weren't seminally present in Adam. Why should we suffer for his sin?


describe another contradiction that is in the Augustinian Theodicy

If God cannot create evil and he made humans in the image and likeness of himself then surely this would mean humans cannot create evil but we can see that this isn't the case.


describe the strength of the Augustinian Theodicy that there is evidence that humans creating evil

-evidential problem of evil
-Augustine's theodicy states that Adam and Eve's disobedience lead to evil in the world.
-Evil is a fault of humans. We can see it everyday. e.g. war, terrorism, abuse etc


explain how Plantinga supports the Augustinian Theodicy

-Genuine free will requires the possibility that humans can choose evil

-Possible that an omnibenevolent God would want to create evil as it brings moral goodness.

-Suggests that Mackie is wrong to believe that evil and God aren't incompatible


Why is it unreasonable to say suffering isn't a real thing? criticism of the Augustinian Theodicy

-Is Augustine playing word games by calling evil a privation?
-This idea wouldn't help us comfort a grieving parent who has just lost their child.


what is the inconsistent triad ?

God cannot be omnipotent or God cannot be all loving or evil does not exist


explain the first part of John Hick's Ireanaen theodicy (soul making)

-evil has a purpose

- he agrees with irenaeus that humans were created in the image of God but we haven't yet assumed his likeliness

-we are in a immature, moral state and through the life we learn through suffering and experience to grow into the likeliness of God

-Adam and Eve made a mistake through immaturity. Jesus was sent by God as part of the learning process and also suffered


explain the second part of Hick's theodicy

-if God created perfect humans then we would be like robots and our love would be valueless

-perfection cannot come ready made, but must develop through free choice, so God had to give us the potential to disobey him.

-this meant that he also has to create a world where there is a possibility for causing harm

-without suffering, qualities such as courage or unconditional love would be untested and impossible


explain the third part of hicks theodicy

-there is necessarily an 'epistemic distance' between God and man

-if God intervenes and prevents evil then we would be too aware of his existence watching us and so we would have no real choice. We would choose to obey not because we wanted to, but because we were terrified.


explain the fourth part of hicks theodicy (natural laws)

-the world runs to a series of natural laws which are predictable and constant

-natural evil happens when these laws come into contact with our own perceived needs.

-there is no moral dimension to this


explain the fifth part of hicks theodicy (soul making)

-our world is a value of soul making

-if we do not have evil we would not be able to develop true virtues such as courage and compassion and we would never know what good is, so we would have no real choice


what is the last part of hicks theodicy

for evil to have a purpose hick argues for universal salvation- all must be saved and go to heaven in the end


problem with hicks theodicy

-it seems unfair that everyone ends up in heaven

-why should mother Teresa and hitler both end up in heaven?

-if all of us reach heaven that what is the point in being good