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Flashcards in Social Approach Deck (40)
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What was the sample for Milgram

40 new haven men
Aged 20-50
Volunteer sample


What was the aim and hypothesis for Milgram

The aim was to see if cultural differences affect obedience
The hypothesis was that American people will be obedient to an authoritative figure similar to the Germans in WW2


What is the Milgram study based on (background)

The holocaust WW2
The Germans killing hundreds of Jews


What is the research method used in the Milgram study?

Controlled observation


What is the IV in Milgram

There is no IV
It is a structured observation therefore there is no IV


How was the DV measured in Milgram

How high will people go before they stop the shocks being administered


What are the controls in Milgram

At the start of the procedure:
"Although the shocks may be painful there is no permanent tissue damage"
4 prompts:
1"please continue"
2"the experiment requires you continue"
3"it is absolutely essential you continue"
4"you have no other choice, you must go on"


What ethical issues were broken in the Milgram study

Consent -> didn't consent to the actual study
Deception -> they didn't know the real study
Withdrawal -> 4 prods
Protection of participant -> not protected from mental harm


What was the quantitative and qualitative data collected by Milgram

Quantitative -> 60% of people went to 450 volts
Qualitative -> Milgram questioned people after the experiment


Name and explain two improvements

1) improve the ethics
2) improve the sample
-the sample is androcentric


What are the results for milgram

-predictions ~ Milgram showed the experiment to 14 psychologists and they predicted 3% of participants would go to 450volts
-realism ~ in the post experiment participants were given a shock to see how painful it was
-signs of extreme tension ~ many subjects showed nervousness and extreme tension, 14 displayed nervous laughter
- distribution of scores ~ over half the participants went to 450 volts, only 9 stopped at 300 volts


Give possible explanations for the results of Milgram

Location, in a university, provides authority
It's for science !
Mundane realism, it's a novel situation with no norm to behav making them more likely to follow an authority figure


What is the conclusion that Milgram made?

We can infer that obedience is affected by situational factors rather than dispositional factors


What are the practical applications of Milgram

It will help us change behaviour towards an authoritative figure if someone similar to hitler returned


What is the background for piliavin's study

Kitty Genovese being murdered and no one calling the police
30 witnesses


What are the four aims/hypothesis of Piliavin

1) participants are more likely to help a victim who is I'll than they are to help a victim who is drunk
2) participants are more likely to help someone who is the same race
3) participants are more likely to help when a model intervenes
4) the larger the group the longer it will take for the victim to receive help


What is the research method used in piliavin

Field experiment


What was the sample for piliavin

4500 men and women
We're travelling on the subway in New York on weekdays between 11am and 3pm
Over a two month period
Average of 43 people in a carriage


What sampling technique was used for piliavin

Opportunity sample


What are the 4 IVs for piliavin

Type of victim -> drunk/I'll
Race of victim
Impact of model -> 70secs/150secs/no model
Group size


What were the 6 DVs for piliavin

Frequency of help
Speed of help
Race of helper
Sex of helper
Movement out of area
Verbal comments


What were the controls of the study

4 teams of 4 researchers
2 women -> data collection
2 men-> 1victim and 1 model
Model interventions standardised


How were the victims controlled in piliavin

3 white and 1 black (26-35)
Dressed and acted identically
Collapsed after 70 seconds
Remained on the floor until help came (model)


Briefly explain the procedure for piliavin

The 2 observers too seats in the critical area
The victim and model stayed standing
After approximately 70seconds the victim staggered forward and collapsed (remained on his back until help came)


How was the victim presented in piliavin

Drunk -> he victim smelled of alcohol and carried a bottle with him (in a paper bag)
Ill/cane -> the victim appeared sober and had a black cane


What were the results for the I'll or drunk scenario in piliavin

Ill-> spontaneous help 95% of the time
Drunk-> spontaneous help 50%
~ before model stepped in
Ill-> 87% were helped (5seconds)
Drunk->17%were helped (109seconds)


What were the results for the same race scenario in piliavin

Black victims received less help less quickly especially if they were drunk


What were the results for the model intervention (before&after) scenario in piliavin

Before a model intervened (70seconds) 87% of people helped the ill victim and 17%helped the drunk
After the model intervened 13%helped the ill and 83% helped the drunk


What were the results for the group size scenario in piliavin

The more passengers who were immediate vicinity of the victim the more likely help was given
This goes against the diffusion of responsibility hypothesis)


What are the possible explanations of piliavins results

~the situation created psychological arousal
~the bystander may think the victim deserves it or someone else will help-diffusion of responsibility/no one else is helping so there isn't a real emergency-pluralistic ignorance
~the cost and reward matrix