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Flashcards in Skeleton Deck (37)
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1

how many bones in the axial skeleton

80

2

how many bones in the skull

22

3

how many cranial bones

8

4

how many facial bones

14

5

what are the cranial bones

2 parietal (top); 2 temporal (sides); 1 frontal (front); 1 occipital (back); 1 sphenoid (eye orbit); 1 ethmoid (nasal area)

6

temporal bone

zygomatic process – supports cheek;

mandibular fossa – rounded depression on the inferior surface of the zygomatic process and forms the socket for the mandibular condyle, the point where the mandible joins the cranium;

styloid process – attach muscles for speaking and swallowing;

external auditory canal – ear canal;

mastoid process – attach neck muscles

7

occipital bone

foramen magnum – large opening for spinal cord;

occipital condyles – articulate with vertebral column (atlas)

8

sphenoid bone

greater wings – form part of eye orbit;

lesser wings – provide anchoring site for dura mater;

sella turcica – depression where the pituitary gland is found;

optic canals – allow passage of optic nerves

9

ethmoid bone

perpendicular plate – forms superior part of nasal septum;

cribiform plate – contains tiny holes for passage of olfactory nerves;

crista galli – provides point of attachment for the dura mater, helping to secure the brain within the skull

10

paranasal sinuses

cavities in frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, and maxillary bones; contain sinuses; all help to lighten weight of the skull, and all are lined with mucous membrane to help filter incoming air and trap particles

11

what are in the facial bones

2 maxillary (upper jaw); 2 palatine (hard palate); 2 zygomatic (cheek); 2 lacrimal (eye orbit; contain lacrimal or tear glands); 2 nasal (bridge of nose); 2 inferior nasal conchae (nostrils); 1 vomer ( part of nasal septum); 1 mandible (lower jaw; only movable bone in skull; mandibular condyles – articulation point of mandible with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone thus forming the tempero-mandibular joint

12

sutures of the skull

immovable joints; coronal (frontal/parietal); lambdoidal (occipital/parietal); sagittal (parietal/parietal); squamosal (parietal/temporal)

13

auditory ossicles

bones in middle ear; Hammer (Maleus); Anvil (Incus); Stirrup (Stapes)

14

hyoid

movable (speech & swallowing); located in throat above the larynx; does not directly attach to any other bone; serves as point of attachment for many tongue and neck muscles

15

vertebral column

7 cervical; 12 thoracic; 5 lumbar; 1 sacrum; 1 coccyx;

16

4 normal curves

forward cervical
backward thoracic
forward lumbar
backward sacral

{backward curves are primary curves (present in fetus)}

17

what are 3 possible abnormal vertebral curvatures

1. scoliosis
2. kyphosis
3. lordosis

18

scoliosis

abnormal lateral curve, most often in the thoracic region; particularly
among adolescent girls; can be corrected with a back brace

19

kyphosis

(hunchback) – an exaggerated thoracic curvature

20

lordosis

(swayback) – an exaggerated lumbar curvature

21

structure of a vertebra

body (supports weight);

vertebral or neural arch (protects spinal cord);

spinous process (attachment of soft tissue);

transverse processes (attachment of soft tissue)

22

sternum

manubrium (articulates with clavicle);

body (main part);

xiphoid process (soft tissue attachment);

manubriosternal joint (moves during inhalation);

sternal puncture (test for anemia; highest % of RBC in sternum)

23

ribs

true or vertebrosternal (1-7) – attach directly to sternum;

false or vertebrochondral (8-10) - indirectly attach to sternum;

floating (11-12) – do not attach to sternum; all ribs attach to vertebral column

24

structure of a rib

head (attaches to vertebral column);

neck (short & flattened); tubercle (articulates with transverse process of vertabra);

shaft or body (longest part; may attach to sternum)

25

how bones in the appendicular skeleton

126

26

what makes up the pectoral girdle

Clavicle (2) - collarbone


Scapular (2) – shoulder-blade; triangular body;
•spine on posterior surface;
acromion (articulates with clavicle);
•glenoid fossa or glenoid cavity (articulates with head of humerus)

27

what makes up the brachium

Humerus (2) – head; greater & lesser tubercles (attach scapular muscles); shaft; lateral & medial epicondyles (attach muscles of forearm and fingers)

28

what makes up the forearm

Ulna (2) – olecranon process ; trochlear notch (together they both form elbow
Joint)

Radius (2) – head (flat); rotates

29

carpus/ wrist

16 carpal bones

30

palm

10 metacarpal bones