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Flashcards in Articulation Deck (18)
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1

Bony Joint
(Synostosis)

an immovable joint formed when the gap between two bones ossifies and they become a single bone
can form by ossification of either fibrous or cartilaginous joints

2

Examples of Synostosis
(bony joint)

an infant is born with right and left frontal and mandibular bones; these bones will fuse seamlessly into a single frontal bone and mandible

the epiphyses and diaphysis of a long bone are joined by cartilaginous joints in childhood and adolescence; these become synostoses in early adulthood

3

Fibrous Joint
(Synarthrosis)

a point at which adjacent bones are bound by collagen fibers that emerge from one bone, cross the space between them, and penetrate into the other

4

what are the 3 types of synarthrosis (fibrous joint)

1. sutures
2. gomphoses
3. syndesmoses

5

Sutures

are immobile
bind bones of skull
serrate suture – appear as wavy lines along which the adjoining bones firmly interlock; coronal, sagittal, and lambdoidal sutures
lap suture – occur when two bones have overlapping beveled edges; squamosal suture
plane suture – occur when two bones have straight, non-overlapping edges; between palatine processes of the maxillae in the roof of the mouth

6

Gomphoses

are immobile
attachment of a tooth to its socket
tooth held in place by a fibrous periodontal ligament

7

Syndesmoses

are slightly movable
two bones are bound by relatively long collagenous fibers
radius/ulna – allows for pronation and supination

8

Cartilaginous Joint
(amphiarthrosis)

two bones are linked by cartilage

9

what are the two types of cartilaginous joints

1. synchondroses
2. symphyses

10

synchondroses

a joint in which the bones are bound by hyaline cartilage

11

examples of synchondroses

temporary joint between the epiphysis and diaphysis of a long bone in a child, formed by the cartilage of the epiphyseal plate; no movement

attachment of the first rib to the sternum by hyaline costal cartilage

12

symphyses

two bones are joined by fibrocartilage
pubic symphysis – slightly movable joint between two pubic bones

13

synovial joint
(diarthrosis)

freely movable joint
classified by the number of planes of direction the joint moves

14

examples of diarthrosis
(synovial joint)

monaxial (one plane), hinge joint (elbow), pivot joint (atlas/axis)

biaxial (two planes), gliding joints (between vertebrae), saddle joint (base of thumb)

triaxial (three or more planes), ball-and-socket joint (shoulder and hip)

15

types of joint disorders

1. dislocation
2. sprain
3. arthritis

16

dislocation

displacement of bone and soft-tissue damage; immobilize injured joint; ball-and-socket joint – most frequently dislocated joint

17

sprain

force a joint beyond its normal range of motion; may not result in a dislocation; soft-tissue damage; talotibial joint (ankle) – most frequently sprained joint

18

arthritis (joint inflammation)

different types;

infectious – results from an infection usually due to trauma; common in knee, hip, ankle, elbow, wrist, and shoulder;

osteoarthritis – most common form; degenerative disease; can be caused by over use of a joint, or by trauma; bone spurs may form, and friction develops;

rheumatoid arthritis – an auto-immune disease; detect the RF antibody (Rheumatoid Factor); immune system attacks various joints in the body; can have periods of remission; no cure; can treat with steroids to reduce the swelling