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Flashcards in Quantum Mechanics Deck (23)
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1

Descibe what the 3 different versions of the atom looked like and who proposed them

Dalton: Named particles atoms. ºº
J J Thompson: proposed a positively charged cloud with electrons inside. Plum pudding.
Rutherford: Nuclear planetary model based on foil experiment

2

Amplitude
Wavelength
Frequency
Hertz

Height of a waves crest
Distance between adjacent crests of a wave
Number of wave cycles that pass a given point per unit of time
The unit of frequency

3

Electromagnetic radiation

Energy waves that travel in a vacuum at a speed of 2.998x10^8m/s; includes radio waves, microwaves, I fared waved, visible light, ultraviolet waves, x rays and gamma rays

4

Spectrum

Wavelengths of visible light that are separated when a beam of light passes through a prism. Red has longest wavelength

5

What happens when atoms absorb energy?

Their electrons move to higher energy levels. The electrons lose energy by emitting light when they return to lower energy levels.

6

Atomic emission spectrum

The pattern formed when light passes through a prism or diffraction grating to separate it into different frequencies of light it contains

7

Photon

A quantum of light; a discrete bundle of electromagnetic energy that interacts with matter similarly to particles.

8

Heisenberg uncertainty principle

It is impossible to know exactly both the velocity and the position of a particle at the same time.

9

Describe the shape of s, p and d orbitals

S=circle
P= rounded hour glass
D=4 point petal

10

Plancks constant:

A number used to calculate the radiant energy absorbed or
emitted by a body based on the frequency of radiation.

E=hv
h=6.626x10^34j*s

11

Photoelectric effect

The ejection of electrons by certain metals when they absorb light with a frequency above a threshold frequency.

12

For a wavelength to be seen what size must the object be?

Smalll

13

Schrödinger came up with a mathematical calculation to describe...

The behaviour of an electron

Orbitals (describes the probability of finding electrons in various locations)

14

Atomic radius

Distance from nucleus to the outer energy level measured in picometers 1x10^-12

Increases from top to bottom because more shells create bigger radius. Decreases from left to right because more protons keep electrons closer.

15

Ionization energy

Energy required to remove the last electron from an atom

Decreases from top to bottom it’s easy to remove an electron far from nucleus. Increases from left to right because it’s harder to remove 2+ valence electrons.

16

Electronegativity

How good an atom is at taking electrons from other atoms.

Decreases from top to bottom because there are more shells in the way of the nuclear pull. Increases from left to right because fuller outer shelled atoms will sooner take electrons than give them away.

17

Aufbau principle

Electrons occupy the lowest level first

18

Quantum

Discrete quantity of energy “chunks”

19

How many electrons can each orbital hold

S=2
P=6
D=10
F=14

20

Describe ionic size trend

Ionic size tends to increase from top to bottom and decrease from left to right

21

Cations are ________ than corresponding atom

Smaller

22

Line spectrum

When atoms are heated they produced their own wave lengths of light called line spectrum.

23

When electrons rise and fall between orbitals they produce...

Specific wavelength of light seen as colour