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Flashcards in Psychiatry - Pharmacology Deck (93)
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1

What is the drug class of choice for treating anorexia and bulimia?

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

2

What are the three first-line drug classes for the treatment of anxiety?

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, and buspirone

3

What are the three first-line drugs (all mood stabilizers) for the treatment of bipolar disorder?

Lithium, valproic acid, and carbamazepine; atypical antipsychotics can also be used

4

What are the three first-line drug classes for the treatment of depression?

Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and tricyclic antidepressants

5

A patient presents with depressed mood, decreased interest, decreased appetite, and poor sleep. He reports sleeping only approximately 3 hours a night. What are two treatment options for this patient?

Trazodone and mirtazapine; both are sedating antidepressants

6

What two drug classes are used in the treatment of atypical depression?

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

7

What drug classes are used in the treatment of panic disorder?

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, and benzodiazepines

8

What two drugs or drug types are used in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder?

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and clomipramine

9

What is the drug class of choice for the treatment of schizophrenia?

Antipsychotics; typical or atypical

10

What is the treatment for Tourette's syndrome?

Antipsychotics; often haloperidol

11

What are the two drugs (one is a drug class) used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder?

Methylphenidate and amphetamines

12

A Vietnam War veteran presents with flashbacks, nightmares, and avoidance of his closet where his wife keeps his uniform. What is a treatment option for this patient?

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors could be used to treat his posttraumatic stress disorder

13

Explain the mechanism of action of methylphenidate.

It increases presynaptic norepinephrine vesicular release (like amphetamines) and is used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

14

Name the typical antipsychotics

Thioridazine, haloperidol, fluphenazine, trifluoperazine, and chlorpromazine

15

How do antipsychotics cause galactorrhea?

Dopamine receptor antagonism releases inhibition on the prolactin-secreting cells of the pituitary

16

Approximately 4 weeks ago, a patient started taking a neuroleptic medication. She now states that she is unable to sit still and that she has a desire to be constantly fidgeting and moving. What adverse effect is she experiencing?

Akathisia

17

What adverse effect of neuroleptic medications is characterized by the inability to initiate purposeful movement?

Akinesia

18

What are the symptoms of acute dystonia? When does dystonia develop after use of neuroleptics?

Abnormal muscle contractions and involuntary twisting movements; it usually develops 4 hours after drug administration

19

Typical antipsychotics block which receptors?

D2-dopamine receptors

20

What extrapyramidal adverse effect of neuroleptics is irreversible?

Tardive dyskinesia

21

A patient presents with rigidity, myoglobinuria, autonomic instability, and hyperpyrexia after recently starting a medication for schizophrenia. What adverse effect is this patient experiencing?

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome; he should be treated with dantrolene and bromocriptine

22

The antimuscarinic effects of neuroleptics cause what adverse effects?

Dry mouth and constipation

23

The antihistamine effects of neuroleptics cause what adverse effect?

Sedation

24

Blockade of the α-receptors by neuroleptics cause what adverse effect?

Hypotension

25

What is the treatment for neuroleptic malignant syndrome?

Dopamine agonists and dantrolene

26

Which neuroleptics are low-potency drugs with a low incidence of neurologic adverse effects?

Thioridazine and chlorpromazine

27

Which neuroleptics are high-potency drugs with neurologic adverse effects?

Haloperidol, fluphenazine, and trifluoperazine

28

Place the following extrapyramidal adverse effects of neuroleptics in the order in which they occur: akathisia, akinesia, dystonia, tardive dyskinesia.

Dystonia (within 4 hours), akinesia (within 4 days), akathisia (within 4 weeks), and tardive dyskinesia (after 4 months)

29

In reference to neuroleptic malignant syndrome, what is the FEVER mnemonic?

FEVER: Fever, Encephalopathy, Vitals unstable, Elevated enzymes, Rigidity of muscles

30

Which two neuroleptics cause ocular adverse effects?

Thioridazine causes retinal deposits whereas chlorpromazine causes corneal deposits