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Flashcards in Psychiatry - Psychology Deck (79)
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1

Name three scales used to measure intelligence quotient.

Stanford-Binet, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children

2

What is the Stanford-Binet calculation of the intelligence quotient?

(Mental age / chronologic age) 100

3

What is the mean intelligence quotient score? What is the standard deviation?

100; 15

4

The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children is used for children in what age range?

6 to 16 years of age

5

If an intelligence quotient score is 70, how many standard deviations is that below the mean?

Two

6

A diagnosis of mental retardation, severe mental retardation, and profound retardation requires that the intelligence quotient be below what number, respectively?

70; 40; 20

7

A mouse is delivered a loud noise and subsequently exhibits a startle response. After 40 trials, the startle response slowly extinguishes. This is an example of what type of learning?

Habituation

8

A mouse is delivered a loud noise and subsequently exhibits a startle response. After 40 trials, the startle response becomes more pronounced. This is an example of what type of learning?

Sensitization

9

What is classical conditioning?

A learning method in which a neutral stimulus eventually evokes a specific response. The learned stimulus evokes a specific response. The learned stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus that would normally not evoke the specific response. By pairing the two stimuli, the specific response can be evoked by the neutral stimulus

10

In classical conditioning, the learned stimulus is also called the _____ stimulus.

Conditioned

11

Who originally performed experiments on classical conditioning with dogs?

Pavlov

12

In Pavlovs classical conditioning experiments with dogs, ringing a bell provoked salivation. What is the learned, or conditioned, response?

Salivation

13

In Pavlovs classical conditioning experiments with dogs, ringing a bell provoked salivation; what is the learned, or conditioned, stimulus?

The bell

14

In Pavlovs classical conditioning experiments with dogs, ringing a bell provoked salivation; what was the original unconditioned stimulus?

Food

15

What is operant conditioning?

A learning method is which actions are adopted into one's repertoire because of receipt of reward upon completing the action

16

A mouse that presses a button to get rewarded with food is learning by what type of reinforcement?

Positive reinforcement

17

A mouse that presses a button to avoid shock is learning by what type of reinforcement?

Negative reinforcement (this should not be confused with punishment)

18

How do punishment and negative reinforcement differ in operant conditioning?

Unlike in punishment, negative reinforcement involves the removal of an aversive stimulus to elicit behavior

19

In operant conditioning, the application of an aversive stimulus to extinguish unwanted behavior is also known as what?

Punishment

20

A mouse presses a button to receive food. After 40 trials, the food is removed so that no food is received when the mouse presses the button. After 20 subsequent trials, the mouse no longer presses the button. What is this pattern called?

Extinction, in which removal of positive reinforcement leads to cessation of behavior

21

In reinforcement, what variable determines how quickly a behavior is learned or extinguished?

The pattern of reinforcement: continuous or variable ratio

22

With a continuous reinforcement schedule for learning, how often is a reward received?

A reward is received after every correct response/behavior

23

With a continuous reinforcement schedule for learning, how quickly is the learned behavior extinguished?

Rapidly

24

With a variable ratio reinforcement schedule for learning, how often is a reward received?

A reward is received after a random number of responses

25

With a variable ratio reinforcement schedule for learning, how quickly is the learned behavior extinguished?

Slowly

26

What is the definition of transference?

A patient projects feelings about another person onto a doctor

27

What is the definition of countertransference?

A physician projects feelings about another person onto a patient

28

A patient is hostile toward her new female psychiatrist. She requests transfer of care to a male psychiatrist. Her history reveals a tumultuous past with her mother that eventually led her to run away at a young age. What term describes this type of interaction?

Transference

29

A psychiatrist begins treating a patient with a history of alcoholism. The psychiatrist slowly becomes hostile towards the patient. The psychiatrist recently divorced her husband who was alcohol-dependent. What term describes this type of interaction?

Countertransference

30

What are Freuds three structures of the mind?

Id, ego, superego