Flashcards in Problem of evil Deck (28)
Describe the beliefs of John Stuart Mill
There can't be a God because evidence of evil disproves the omni-benevolence of God so we can't look to him or nature as a guide of moral behaviour or worship him for goodness
Augustine: God can't make anything (1), during his youth he was a member of (2) which led him to believe people acted badly as a result of (3)
1 - imperfect
2 - a Manicheism cult
3 - evil forces taking dominance
Augustine later referred to Christianity and created the idea of (1) which concluded evil is (2) because he could not accept the idea of (3) God.
1 - Privatio boni
2 - not a real quality
3 - a rivaling
Augustine: Different abilities and variety are not evil, they are part of (1) and some creatures are more (2), evil entered the world as a result of the (3)
1 - a great diversity in nature
2 - limited than others
3 - Fall
Why does Augustine believe angels began to distance themselves from God?
Angels were created perfect but given different grace so they distanced themselves from God as a misuse of free will not to worship him but instead to rival him so Satan is the chief of fallen angels so everything wrong with the world can be traced back to them
Describe the theory of Irenaeus
- God permits evil so beings can grow and mature with a free relationship with God
- Evil exists so we appreciate the good
- Good is a qualitative judgement
Why does Irenaeus believe humans have free will?
People are made in God's image and have free will to be held accountable for their actions so being good comes from conscious decision, we are only in God's likeness after death, without free will we are without purpose
An attempt to justify God in the face of evil and suffering
What is the difference between natural and moral evil?
Natural is suffering not caused by humans whereas humans are the cause of suffering in moral evil
Give three advantages of Augustine's theodicy
- Reasons individuality as 'lord of own being'
- Expresses individuality and limitations as a good thing
- Mirrors humans and angels to have superior worth
Give some disadvantages of Augustine's theodicy
- Rejects imperfection and evil as inequality
- Contradictory (Manicheeism and Christianity)
- Undermines significance of God
- Blames the Fall for all disasters and wrongdoing
Give some advantages of Irenaeus' theodicy
- Helped to write the new testament and so was friends of Jesus' disciples
- Accepted existence of evil
- Logical with evident explanation
- Optimistic and doesn't opress poor behaviour
Give some disadvantages of Irenaeus' theodicy
- Not clearly explained (how does evil benefit our relationship with God?)
- Only gain God's likeness after death is demotivating
Describe John Hick's soul-making theodicy
- If we never experienced challenge we wouldn't develop personalities or morals
- Rejected Augustinian theodicy and accepted Darwin's evolution
- Evil is God-given so we can choose to build a relationship with God
- 'Vale of soul-making'
Give a quote from Hick
"A person-making environment cannot be a pain free paradise"
Describe Keat's theodicy
He described the world as a dark valley through which pain was endured so the soul could develop until it was worthy to meet God
Define 'epistemic distance'
God deliberately remains partially hidden from humanity so when we make moral decisions, we can be held responsible, we can make this distance between us and God closer or further away
Give a quote from John Stuart Mill
"Killing is the most criminal act... nature does once to every being that lives"
What does 'privatio boni' mean?
A phrase used by Augustine to mean the absence of goodness
Describe the problem of evil as a logical problem
- The inconsistent triad
- Supported by J. L. Mackie and David Hume
- A priori
Describe the problem of evil as an evidential problem
- John Stuart Mill
- Evil is evident in the world which goes against a loving God showing a sadistic nature
- Animals suffer too
Describe the views of Mary Baker Eddy
- Christian scientist believe in non-reality of evil
- Evil is an illusion which disappears when understood as nothing compared to the allness of God
Describe Friedrich Scheiermacher's critique of Augustine's theodicy
It is impossible to find a cause or motive for angels to sin unless they were first created imperfectly or evil would have come into the world out of nowhere unless God made it
Give a quote from J.L.Mackie
"A logical problem... not a scientific problem... solved by a decision or an action"
How does God oppose the problem of evil?
If God was omnipotent then he could eliminate suffering, if God was omnibenevolent he would want too and if God was omniscient he would know how to so God and evil cannot both exist alongside so God cannot exist because evil does
What does Mackie believe is an adequate solution to the problem of evil?
Deny God is omni-benevolent or ignore evil exists in the world
What does Mackie believe is a fallacious solution to the problem of evil?
He objects that suffering is necessary to appreciate good because it is a restriction to God's omnipotence