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Describe the beliefs of John Stuart Mill

There can't be a God because evidence of evil disproves the omni-benevolence of God so we can't look to him or nature as a guide of moral behaviour or worship him for goodness


Augustine: God can't make anything (1), during his youth he was a member of (2) which led him to believe people acted badly as a result of (3)

1 - imperfect
2 - a Manicheism cult
3 - evil forces taking dominance


Augustine later referred to Christianity and created the idea of (1) which concluded evil is (2) because he could not accept the idea of (3) God.

1 - Privatio boni
2 - not a real quality
3 - a rivaling


Augustine: Different abilities and variety are not evil, they are part of (1) and some creatures are more (2), evil entered the world as a result of the (3)

1 - a great diversity in nature
2 - limited than others
3 - Fall


Why does Augustine believe angels began to distance themselves from God?

Angels were created perfect but given different grace so they distanced themselves from God as a misuse of free will not to worship him but instead to rival him so Satan is the chief of fallen angels so everything wrong with the world can be traced back to them


Describe the theory of Irenaeus

- God permits evil so beings can grow and mature with a free relationship with God
- Evil exists so we appreciate the good
- Good is a qualitative judgement


Why does Irenaeus believe humans have free will?

People are made in God's image and have free will to be held accountable for their actions so being good comes from conscious decision, we are only in God's likeness after death, without free will we are without purpose


Define 'theodicy'

An attempt to justify God in the face of evil and suffering


What is the difference between natural and moral evil?

Natural is suffering not caused by humans whereas humans are the cause of suffering in moral evil


Give three advantages of Augustine's theodicy

- Reasons individuality as 'lord of own being'
- Expresses individuality and limitations as a good thing
- Mirrors humans and angels to have superior worth


Give some disadvantages of Augustine's theodicy

- Rejects imperfection and evil as inequality
- Contradictory (Manicheeism and Christianity)
- Undermines significance of God
- Blames the Fall for all disasters and wrongdoing


Give some advantages of Irenaeus' theodicy

- Helped to write the new testament and so was friends of Jesus' disciples
- Accepted existence of evil
- Logical with evident explanation
- Optimistic and doesn't opress poor behaviour


Give some disadvantages of Irenaeus' theodicy

- Not clearly explained (how does evil benefit our relationship with God?)
- Only gain God's likeness after death is demotivating


Describe John Hick's soul-making theodicy

- If we never experienced challenge we wouldn't develop personalities or morals
- Rejected Augustinian theodicy and accepted Darwin's evolution
- Evil is God-given so we can choose to build a relationship with God
- 'Vale of soul-making'


Give a quote from Hick

"A person-making environment cannot be a pain free paradise"


Describe Keat's theodicy

He described the world as a dark valley through which pain was endured so the soul could develop until it was worthy to meet God


Define 'epistemic distance'

God deliberately remains partially hidden from humanity so when we make moral decisions, we can be held responsible, we can make this distance between us and God closer or further away


Give a quote from John Stuart Mill

"Killing is the most criminal act... nature does once to every being that lives"


What does 'privatio boni' mean?

A phrase used by Augustine to mean the absence of goodness


Describe the problem of evil as a logical problem

- The inconsistent triad
- Supported by J. L. Mackie and David Hume
- A priori


Describe the problem of evil as an evidential problem

- John Stuart Mill
- Evil is evident in the world which goes against a loving God showing a sadistic nature
- Animals suffer too


Describe the views of Mary Baker Eddy

- Christian scientist believe in non-reality of evil
- Evil is an illusion which disappears when understood as nothing compared to the allness of God


Describe Friedrich Scheiermacher's critique of Augustine's theodicy

It is impossible to find a cause or motive for angels to sin unless they were first created imperfectly or evil would have come into the world out of nowhere unless God made it


Give a quote from J.L.Mackie

"A logical problem... not a scientific problem... solved by a decision or an action"


How does God oppose the problem of evil?

If God was omnipotent then he could eliminate suffering, if God was omnibenevolent he would want too and if God was omniscient he would know how to so God and evil cannot both exist alongside so God cannot exist because evil does


What does Mackie believe is an adequate solution to the problem of evil?

Deny God is omni-benevolent or ignore evil exists in the world


What does Mackie believe is a fallacious solution to the problem of evil?

He objects that suffering is necessary to appreciate good because it is a restriction to God's omnipotence


What is Mackie's first and second order goods?

Evil (1) is pain and good (2) is happiness but good (2) is compassion and courage which isn't possible without evil (1) but there is a 'fatal objection' which is cruelty as evil (2). If a theist argues that there is a good (3) which increases good (2) then there is also evil (3) which is also increasing into an infinite regress