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Flashcards in Arguments from observation Deck (31)
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Name the two observational theories theories

Cosmological and teleological


Define 'natural theology'

Drawing conclusions about the nature and existence of God by using reason and observing the world


Define 'contingent'

Being dependent on something


Define the 'principle of sufficient reasoning'

The principle that everything must have an explanation


Define 'sceptic'

Someone who challenges the claims of others


Define 'A posteriori'

Drawing conclusions based on observations from experience


Define 'necessary existence'

A being that doesn't depend on anything but itself to live


Define 'A priori'

Drawing conclusions through logic and reason


Define 'logical fallacy'

Reasoning who's structure is flawed


Finish the quote by Romans 1:19-20 "Since what may be known about God is plain to them...

Because God has made it plain to them... God's invisible qualities... have been clearly seen... People are without excuse"


What is the basis of teleological arguments?

The example or order, beauty and purpose in this world means there must be a designer outside of the universe


What is the aim of Aquinas' Quinque viae?

To show how reason and faith could work together because there are two ways of knowing God, through revelation and natural theology


What is Aquinas' fifth way?

Nature has order and purpose to it, nothing is inanimate without a 'guiding hand' e.g. a bow and arrow without an archer


Use the example of the river to explain the meaning of Aquinas' fifth way

A river does not flow into the sea because it chooses too because it doesn't have the mind to choose too and so the guiding hand is God


Finish the quote from Aquinas "Whatever lacks knowledge cannot...

Move towards an end unless it be directed... to their end and this being we call God"


Describe William Paley's teleological argument

Someone walking on a heath saw a watch on the ground and noticed its intricate design, they had then concluded it must have had a maker and this is similar for the human body and earthly processes


According to Paley, what else depicts God's nature and existence?

His loving nature is shown in the adaptations of animals and their unique abilities


What is the basis of the cosmological argument?

The universe cannot account for its own existence and so there must be a reason why it exists but because the world is contingent, its creator must be outside of time and space


The first three of Aquinas' five ways are based on what two assumptions?

1 - the universe exists
2 - there must be a reason why the universe exists


Name and describe the Aquinas' first way

An unmoved mover: the ways in which objects grow, move and change in composition cannot be part of an infinite regress, there must be a being that first started motion


Give a quote from Aquinas to describe the first of the five ways

"Nothing can be reduced from potentiality to actuality except by something in a state of actuality... everyone understands to be God"


What is the emphasis of Aquinas' first way?

Dependency rather than finding the beginning by using the idea that God sustains life and the cosmos as we would not have a universe without something first beginning motion


Name and describe Aquinas' second way

The uncaused causer - instead of the concept of motion, the idea is that the chain of cause and effect cannot be an infinite regress


Which of Aristotle's causes supports the second way? Give a quote as evidence

The efficient cause - the activity that causes something to exist or be
"It is necessary to admit a first efficient cause to which everyone gives the name God"


Name and describe Aquinas' third way

Contingency: everything is dependent on something for existence in one of two ways; (1) dependency on being brought into existence (2) dependency on external factors to sustain existence


How does Gottfried Leibniz believe the universe is best understood? What is his key question?

In the relation of time and space rather than facts and rules
'Why is there something rather than nothing?'


What are Gottfried Leibniz four points of the principle of sufficient reasoning?

- If something exists there must be a reason why
- If a statement is true there must be a reason why
- If something happens there must be a reason why
- It makes no difference if it is eternal


Why does Hume criticise Paley?

A watch is not a sufficient example because it is not natural so its design and purposes are more obvious than the world


Why does Hume criticise the concept of a divine creator?

Just because there is order and purpose does not justify a creator because we know no other world to compare it too


Explain Hume's analogy of the scales

There is a set of scales, one end has a kilogram on it, the weight on the other side is unseeable but is heavier than a kilogram just like the cause-and-effect argument we cannot claim this to be God