Describe the nuclear model of the atom
A positive nucleus containing protons and neutrons with electrons found in shells orbiting the nucleus
State the relative charge of all sub atomic particles
State the relative masses of all sub atomic particles
Electron almost 0 (1/1840)
How can you calculate the specific charge? Giving all units
Specific charge (C/kg) = charge (C) / mass (kg)
Define atomic (proton number)
The number of protons in a nucleus = the number of electrons for an uncharged atom
Define nucleon number
The number of nucleons (protons + neutrons)
Define an isotope
An isotope is the same element with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
Why is the strong nuclear force important?
It keeps nucleus stable
Sketch a graph of force against seperation for the strong nucear force.
Must be attractive and repulsive at different distance.
When is the strong nuclear force attractive
up to approximately 3 fm
When is the strong nuclear force repulsive
A distances closer than 0.5 fm
Describe some properties of the strong nuclear force
- Very strong - overcomes repulsion between positive protons
- Very short range - only acts between adjacent nucleons
- Acts on any nucleon (proton or neutron) and is independent of charge
- Can be attractive or repulsive Is repulsive if nucleons gets too close - stops nuclei collapsing
How does the strong nuclear force cause particles to be in equilibrium?
Increase in nucleon separation leads to an attractive force Decrease in nucleon separation leads to a repulsive force In both situations, force will return nucleons back to equilibrium position.
What are the three types of radioactive decay?
Describe an alpha particle
- 2 protons and 2 neutrons or aHelium nucleus
- Relative mass of 4
- Relative charge of +2
- highly ionising
- Stopped by skin, paper, 5 - 10 cm of air
Describe a beta particle
- fast moving electron ejected from the nucleus
- Relative mass of almost 0
- Relative charge of -1
- ionising Stopped by mm's aluminium or 1 meter of air
Describe a gamma wave
- Electromagnetic wave that moves at the speed of light through a vacuum
- Relative mass of 0
- Relative charge of 0
- very weakly ionising
- Reduced by cm's lead or m's of concrete
Describe the changes that take place in beta decay
A neutron decays into a proton creating the beta particle and an electron antineutrino.
For a neutron to decay into a proton a down quark decays into a up quark
Describe the evidence that neutrinos exist
- Experimental data shows that as a beta particle is emitted in beta decay it will have a range of energies from nearly zero up to a maximum.
- All decays must have the same energy (conservation of energy)
- The total energy and momentum of the beta particle and recoiling nucleus was not constant.
- Energy has to be conserved Wolfgang pauli (1930) predicted a particle that could carry away the extra energy/momentum so they would be conserved. This particle was discovered and named the antineutrino
Describe the changes that take place in positron emission
A proton decays into a neutron creating the positron and an electron neutrino.
For a proton to decay into a neutron a up quark decays into a down quark.
Why does an antineutrino need to be released during beta decay
To conserve, energy, momentum and lepton number
Define a fundamental particle
Fundamental particles cannot be divided into other particles. They have no internal structure.
Give some examples of fundamental particles
Electron, neutrino, all quarks
What are the 6 types of quark
What is the quark structure of a proton?
u u d
What is the quark structure of a neutron?
u d d
What is an antiparticle
particles with the same mass but opposite charge
State the name of the anti electron
Define a hadron
Hadrons are any particle made up of quarks.
Hadrons are not fundamental.
Hadrons can be either Baryons or mesons.
What force are hadrons subject to?
Strong nuclear force