What is the period of oscillation?

The time for one complete cycle of oscillation.

If a trolley is at equilibrium attached to two springs, when pushed in one direction, what will the trolley do and why?

It will accelerate toward the equilibrium point. The extended spring provides a restoring force.

Define a free oscillator

Oscillations where there is no ** periodic force** acting on the system

Define a forced oscillator

A system is forced to oscillate by an __external periodic force__

For an object undergoing SHM where does it have the greatest velocity?

At the equilibrium position

For an object undergoing SHM where does it have zero velocity?

At the amplitudes

For an object undergoing SHM where does it have the greatest acceleration?

At the amplitudes

For an object undergoing SHM where does it have the least acceleration?

At the equilibrium point

State the two conditions required for SHM

1. Acceleration always directed towards the equilibrium position 2. The acceleration is proportional to the displacement of the object from the equilibrium position

What is the relationship between displacement and frequency for a shm oscillator?

They are independent. As displacement increases the accelerations increases. This increases the average velocity which cancels out the additional distance the oscillator needs to travel

What is the relationship between mass and frequency for a shm oscillator?

As mass increases the accelerations decreases (F=ma).

the lower acceleration causes a lower average velocity.

This means time period will increase and from

f = 1/T then frequency will decrease

What is the relationship between spring constant and frequency for a shm oscillator?

As spring constant increases the resting force increases (F=ke).

This causes a larger acceleration (F = ma)

which means the average velocity will be greater.

The will reduced the time period and

increase the frequency (f = 1/T)

Describe the displacement against time graph for an oscillator starting at the right hand side amplitude

Sin (x)

Describe the velocity against time graph for an oscillator starting at the right hand side amplitude

cos (x)

Describe the acceleration against time graph for an oscillator starting at the right hand side amplitude

-sin (X)

What function should your calculator be in when using the displacement equation

Radians

Describe the acceleration against displacement graph for a SHM oscillator

A straight line through the origin with a negative gradient

What can be found from the gradiant of a graph of acceleration vs dispacement?

(2πf)^{2}

Describe the velocity against displacement graph for a SHM oscillator

A circle with the origin as the mid point

Describe the kinetic energy against displacement graph for a SHM oscillator

a n shape

Describe the potential energy against displacement graph for a SHM oscillator

a u shape

For a mass spring system plan a practical to prove the relationship between time period and mass

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- Vary the mass 8 times.
- Measure the time period
- Keep spring constant a control variable
- make the experiment more accurate by repeat readings, timing for 10 oscillations and reduce parallax errors by keeping your eye level with the start and end of an oscillation
- Plot a graph of T
^{2} against m.
- Relationship is proven if the graph is a straight line through the origin.

^{2}against m.For a pendulum plan a practical to prove the relationship between time period and length

###
- Vary the length 8 times.
- Measure the time period
- Keep mass of the pendulum bob a control variable
- make the experiment more accurate by repeat reading, timing for 10 oscillations and reduce parallax errors by keeping your eye level with the start and end of an oscillation
- Plot a graph of T
^{2} against l.
- Relationship is proven if the graph is a straight line through the origin.

^{2}against l.What is damping?

The term used to describe the removal of energy from an oscillating system.

How can you tell an oscillator is being damped?

It will be losing energy so the amplitude will be decreasing

What are the four levels of damping?

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- Light
- Heavy
- Critical
- over damped

Describe light damping of a system

The system oscillates over a long time frame before coming to rest.

Energy is lost slowly.

The amplitude of the oscillations follow an exponential decay envelope.

Describe Heavy damping

The system oscillates over a short time frame before coming to rest.

Energy is lost quickly.

The amplitude of the oscillations follow an exponential decay envelope.

Describe critical damping

The oscillating system returns to the zero position of the oscillation after one quarter of a time period.

Does not affect frequency.

Doesn't oscilate - it just stops when it first returns to the equilibrium position.

Describe over damped

The oscillating system returns to zero over an extended time frame. (No discernible oscillation)