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What is obedience?

Complying with the demands of an authority figure


How does obedience act positively for society?

Society could not operate in an effective manner unless rules and laws are obeyed and people in authority are acknowledged as having the right to give orders


Give an example of the negative consequences of obedience?

The Holocaust


What personal interest did Milgram have in finding explanations for the Holocaust?

He came from an American Jewish family who had fled Europe for America to escape the Holocaust


Who was Milgram's teacher?



What was Adolf Eichmann's excuse for his actions in the Holocaust (carrying out die Endoslung, killing thousands)?

He was only following orders


What was the aim of Milgram's study?

To see if individuals would obey the orders of an authority figure that incurred negative consequences and went against one's moral code


Who were Milgram's sample?

40 American males aged 20-50 who had self-selected through a newspaper advert


What was the name of the Confederate participant who played the learner in every experiment of Milgram's?

Mr Wallace


How were Milgram's participants deceived?

They were told that the experiment concerned the effects of punishment on learning and that they would be randomly selected to play the teacher or learner


How were the shocks administered and how far did they go in Milgram's study?

The real participant was taken to a different room and placed in front of a shock generator that went from 15 volts and increased by 15 volts until it reached 450 volts


What task was given to the participants of Milgram's study?

They read out a series of paired association tasks to which they received a pre-recorded set of answers from the confederate, and the teacher was instructed by the experimenter to give a shock each time the answer was wrong, increasing the intensity of the shocks


At what volt level of Milgram's experiment did the confederate start to protest, then refuse to answer the questions and then stop answering?

150 volts, 300 volts, 330 volts


What happened if the participant seemed reluctant to continue in Milgram's experiment?

A series of prods were given by the experimenter; "the experiment requires you to continue" and "you have no choice, you must go on"


What quantitative results did Milgram gain?

62.5% of participants gave shocks up to 450 volts and in a condition in which Mr Wallace banged on the walls 65% obeyed to 450 volts


What qualitative results did Milgram gain?

Many participants showed distress such as twitching, sweating or giggling nervously, digging their nails into their flesh and verbally abusing the experimenter. Three had uncontrolled seizures. Others showed little signs of discomfort


What was Milgram's American study considered?

A pilot study for use in Germany and his other research


Why is Milgram's experiment actually considered a controlled observation?

There is no independent variable in this study; in his variations of the study there are independent variables


How many participants had regrets about taking part in Milgram's study?



What was included in Milgram's debrief?

Being introduced to the unharmed confederate to prove he was unharmed


What percentage of participants did 40 psychologists believe would obey in Milgram's study?



According to Perry, how many participants believed the shocks were real, reducing internal validity?



What reduces the external validity of Milgram's study?

Androcentrism; Sheridan and King performed a study involving reaal shocks on a puppy and found 54% of males obeyed but 100% of females obeyed up to an apparent 450 volts


What did Burger find to support the temporal validity of Milgram's study?

An obedience rate of 70% with no real difference between male and female participants


Who carried out a natural experiment regarding obedience and who were his participants?

Hofling et al.; nurses


How many of the nurses in Hofling et al.'s study obeyed and what did they obey?

21 out of 22 nurses obeyed; gave twice the maximum dose of a medication because a doctor told them over the phone without signing the consent forms


Name the variations of Milgram's study and their obedience rates

Touch proximity (30%); uniform (21%); proximity with authority figure (21%)