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Flashcards in Motivational Theorys Deck (27)
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What is the name of Taylor’s theory?

Scientific approach


What does Taylor’s theory involve

- Jobs are broken down into simple task and then the best suited candidates would be trained to specialise in that task.
- workers paid via piece rate
- reward increases productivity


Limitations of Taylor’s theory

- doesn’t take into account psychological factors
- outdated, as workers look for job satisfaction
- not suitable for all jobs


What is Mayo’s theory

Psychological factors are important


What does Mayo’s theory involve

- a workplace is a social system and people like to work in groups
- employees respond to changes in the working environment


What is the name of McClelland’s theory?

Three needs theory


What are the three needs of McClelland’s theory

- achievement
- affiliation
- power


What are the achievement characteristics?

- has a strong need to set and accomplish challenging goals
- takes calculated risks to accomplish their goals


What are the affiliation characteristics?

- wants to belong to the group
- favours collaboration over competition


What are the power characteristics?

- likes to win arguments
- wants to control and influence others


What are the key points of the three needs theory?

- if one of the needs is more dominate, it will influence a workers behaviours
- McClelland believed that if an employees dominant need is identified, then they can be managed and thus motivated appropriately.


Limitations of the three needs theory

- meeting employees’ needs will not always be beneficial for the organisation
- meeting one employees need may demotivate other employees
- employees often need to be an ‘all rounder’


What is the name of Herzberg’s theory

Two factor theory


What are the two factors in the Two Factory theory

hygiene and motivating factors


What are hygiene factors?

These factors are pay and working conditions. Things that people expect and should have. With the absence of them it causes dissatisfaction.


What are motivating factors?

Factors that make people more efficient for example enrichment, recognition, praise, rewarding work and empowerment.


Limitations of the Two Factory theory

- workers may classify factors in different ways
- some people may be motivated by hygiene factors - particularly the environment (eg google)
- may be a challenge to enrich and empower unskilled workers.


What is the name of Maslow’s theory?

Hierarchy of needs


What are the hierarchy of needs in order from top to bottom?

Self actualisation, self esteem, social needs, safety, physiological need


What did Maslow say about his theory?

Human beings are motivated by a series of fundamental needs, building upon the foundation of its predecessor.


What is the name of Vroom’s theory

Expectancy theory formula


What is the Expectancy Theory Formula

Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valance


What is expectancy? (Vroom)

Whether the employee believes they are able to fulfil a task


What is instrumentality? (Vroom)

This is the belief that if you perform well that a valued outcome will be received.


What is valence? (Vroom)

This refers to the value that they place on the reward on offer


How to calculate Vroom’s theory?

All elements are measured between 0 and 1. For example, a task measured as 0.75 is believed to be more achievable than one measured as 0.45


Limitations of Vroom’s theory

- placing values on expectancy valence and instrumentality is subject to opinion.
- people place different values on rewards
- rewards might be difficult to correlate