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Flashcards in Module 6.2 Deck (101)
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1

How many different types of amines can we get?
What are they?

3 types.
Primary, Secondary and Tertiary

2

If we have a primary amine, how many hydrogen groups are attached to the nitrogen?
Also, how many R groups are attached to the nitrogen?

2 hydrogens
1 R group

3

If we have a secondary amine, how many hydrogen groups are attached to the nitrogen?
Also, how many R groups are attached to the nitrogen?

1 hydrogen
2 R groups

4

If we have a tertiary amine, how many hydrogen groups are attached to the nitrogen?
Also, how many R groups are attached to the nitrogen?

NO hydrogens
3 R groups

5

Name the following primary amines:
CH3NH2
CH3CH2CH2NH2

Methylamine
Propylamine

6

Name the following secondary amines:
CH3NHCH3
CH3CH2CH2NHCH3

N,N - Dimethylamine
N,N- Methyl propanamine

7

Name the following tertiary amine:
CH3NCH3CH3

Trimethylamine

8

Define the term base

A proton acceptor

9

Why can amines be regarded as bases?

Lone pair of electrons on the nitrogen atom that is able to accept protons.

10

When amines react with dilute acids, what is formed?

Ammonium salt

11

What is meant by aliphatic?

Straight chained compounds

12

Describe the preparation of aliphatic amines by substitution of haloalkanes

Aliphatic amines can be made by heating a haloalkane with an excess of ethanolic ammonia.

Reagents = Haloalkane + Excess ethanolic ammonia
Conditions = Sealed in a tube.
Products = Aliphatic amine + Ammonia salt

13

Give a generic reaction equation for the formation of aliphatic amines by substitution of haloalkanes

RX + 2NH3 → RNH2 + NH4X

Haloalkane + Ammonia → Aliphatic primary amine + Ammonium halide

14

In the process of preparing aliphatic amines, why is excess ethanolic ammonia used?

To prevent further substitution

15

In the process of preparing aliphatic amines, if we use excess haloalkane, what type of product do we get?

A quarternary ammonium salt e.g.

16

Describe the preparation of aromatic amines by reduction of nitroarenes

Aromatic amines are made by reducing a nitro compound such as nitrobenzene.
Nitrobenzene is reduced by heating a nitrocompound with a reducing agent ( mix of conc. HCl and tin (Sn))

After 30 minutes has passed, we add a strong base such as NaOH to the salt produced from reducing nitrobenzene to get our aromatic amine.

Reagents = Reducing agent (Mix of tin + conc. HCl)
Conditions = 100 degrees celsius under reflux
Products = Aromatic amine + 2H2O

17

Give the generic equation for the preparation of aromatic amines

Nitroarene + 6[H] → Phenyl amine + 2H2O

Phenylamine is an aromatic amine

18

What is the general formula of amino acids?

RCH(NH2)COOH

19

Why can amino acids be regarded as amphoteric?

They have an acidic group as well as a basic group

Acidic = COOH
Basic = NH2

20

When an amino acid reacts with an alkali, what is produced?

A salt + Water

Amino acid + Alkali → Salt + Water

21

When an alkali is added to an alpha amino acid, what happens to the COOH and the NH2 groups?

COOH becomes COO^-M+ where M is the metal from the alkali
NH2 remains the same

22

What is meant by a zwitterion?

An ion with no overall charge because the positive and negative charges in the compound CANCEL each other out.

23

What is meant by the isoelectric point

The pH at which there is no net electrical charge on the amino acid

24

Describe the reaction of the carboxylic acid group of amino acids reacting in the formation of esters

The carboxylic acid group of amino acids can react with alcohol, in the presence of a strong acid catalyst (usually conc. sulfuric acid) under reflux to produce an ester and water

Reagents = Amino acid + Alcohol
Conditions = Reflux
Product(s) = Ester + Water

25

Give the generic equation in the reaction between an amino acid and alcohol

Amino acid + Alcohol → Ester + Water

26

Describe the reaction of the amine group of amino acids with acids

When an amino acid reacts with an acid, the product formed is a SALT of the CONJUGATE ACID.

In this reaction, the amino acid acts as a base an accepts the entire acid onto the amine group.

27

When an acid is added to an alpha amino acid, what happens to the COOH and the NH2 groups?

COOH stays the same

NH2 changes to NH3^+Z^-

Where Z is the group attached to the acid reactant

28

What is the functional group of amides?

RCON

29

What is a weak base, amines or amides?

Amides

30

How many types of amides can we get?

3

Primary, Secondary and Tertiary

*You don't need to know about tertiary amides