Flashcards in Module 2.2 Deck (63)
How many electrons are there in the 1st shell?
How many electrons are there in the 2ndshell?
How many electrons are there in the 3rdshell?
How many electrons are there in the 4thshell?
What is an orbital?
A region around the nucleus that can hold up to two electrons with opposite spins
How many orbitals does a s-sub-shell have?
How many orbitals does a p-sub-shell have?
How many orbitals does a d-sub-shell have?
What shape does a s-orbital have?
What shape does a p-orbital have?
What is the filling order for electron configuration?
1s^2 , 2s^2 , 2p^6 , 3s^2 , 3p^6 , 4s^2 , 3d^10 , 4p^6 , 5s^2 , 4d^10 , 6s^2
(You NEED to know up to 4p^6)
What are the rules for drawing electron configuration diagrams?
- Electrons fill orbitals with the same energy before pairing
- Electrons will fill from the lowest available energy level
- Two electrons can go into an orbital, providing that they are of opposite spin.
What must you be careful with when drawing/giving electron configurations of ions?
Adding and removing electrons
Rule - If it is a positive ion, remove electrons, based on its charge.
Say, it was a group 2 ion, remove 2 electrons
(VICE VERSA for negative ions)
Define ionic bonding
The electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
How does the ionic giant lattice come about?
Oppositely charged ions attract each other. Each ion attracts oppositely charged ions from ALL directions. Each of these in turn, ATTRACT MORE, oppositely charged ions. This forms a giant lattice structure.
How many ions are there in a giant ionic lattice?
Describe the melting and boiling points of ionic compounds?
The giant ionic lattice is held together b strong electrostatic forces. It takes a large amount of energy to overcome these forces. Therefore, their MP and BP are very high
Describe the solubility of ionic compounds
Ionic compounds tend to dissolve in water. This is because water molecules are polar. The water molecules are attached to the charge ions. They pull the ions away from the lattice making it dissolve.
Describe the electrical conductivity of ionic compouncs
Ionic compounds conduct electricity when they're molten or dissolved but not when they're solid.
When solid - Ions are localised and cannot move about. Therefore, they cannot carry charge
When molten/dissolved - Ions can conduct electricity as they are now mobile and can carry charge
Define covalent bonding
The strong electrostatic attraction betwen a shared pair of electrons and thenuclei of the bonded atoms.
When drawing covalent bonds, what rules must we follow?
- Don't draw inner electrons
- Only draw outer electrons
What is dative covalent bonding?
The electrostatic attraction between a shared pair of electrons and the nuclei of the bonded atoms. In this type of covalent bonding, both electrons in the shared pair of electrons come from ONE PAIR.
What is meant by average bond enthalpy?
The amount of energy required to break a covalent bond?
The stronger the covalent bond, the higher the?
Average bond enthalpy
In Chemistry, do we prefer all bonds to be equally spread out as far as possible or the bonds being closer together so that repulsive forces are grater
We prefer all bonds to be equally spread out as far as possible (most energetically stable)
Give the bond angle of a compound with : 4 BP and 0LP
Give the bond angle of a compound with : 3BP + 1LP
Give the bond angle of a compound with : 2BP + 2LP
Give the bond angle of a compound with : 3BP + 0 LP