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Flashcards in Midterm Deck (32)
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1

What is the definition of adjustment?

Some ideal norm exists by which people should be measured

2

Explain the Bowlby attachment theory.

According to this theory created by John Bowlby, as an extension of psychoanalytic theory. There are four types of attachments children develop: (1) secure, (2) anxious, (3) avoidant, or (4) anxious-avoidant.
(1) Secure attachment has a good amount of attachment
(2) anxious attachment needs too much attachment in relationships
(3) avoidant attachment wants little to no attachment
(4) anxious-avoidant attachment goes back and forth between needing too much and not wanting any attachment.

3

List the different parenting styles, and define each one.

(1) Authoritative parents, establish high goals for their children, yet they are accepting and allow their children to explore while maintaining firm limits to help scaffold and structure their children’s environment.
(2) Authoritarian parents, are extremely strict, have high demands, and use the threat of physical punishment to control their children. They tend not to allow their children to have input into their world.
(3) Permissive parents, make few demands on the children and tend to indulge their children’s desires.
(4) Neglectful parents, aren’t very accepting of their children, are not greatly involved in their children’s lives, but do provide for their children’s basic physical needs.

4

List Erikson’s early to late adulthood stages in psychosocial development.

Birth to 2: trust vs mistrust.
2-6: initiative vs guilt.
6-12: industry vs inferiority, they start comparing themselves to others and either decide they can be a part of a system or they are inferior to their peers .
13-20- identity vs role confusion, knowing who you are vs not knowing who you are.

5

What is the definition of holistic health ?

Holistic health, focuses on all facets of human functioning, which involves our taking responsibility of maintaining all aspects of our well-being.

6

What is the definition of wellness?

Wellness, entails a lifestyle choice and involves a lifelong process of taking care of our needs on all levels of functioning.

7

What are the consequences to burnout?

It can lead to a low personal accomplishment, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization.

8

What are gender-role strain and stereotypes?

Also known as gender role conflict.

Gender-role strain are societal norms for gender ideals are often contradictory, inconsistent, unattainable. Gender stereotypes are widely accepted beliefs about females and males abilities, personality traits, and behavior patterns- are common fare in American culture.

9

List the stereotypical view on males.

Emotional unavailability independence
power and aggressiveness,
denial of fears
protection of his inner self
invulnerability,
lack of self-awareness,
remoteness with other men,
driver to succeed,
denial of “feminine” qualities,
avoidance of physical contract,
rigid perceptions
loss of the male spirit and experience of depression.

10

List the stereotypical view on females.

Women are warm, expressive, and nurturing; aren’t aggressive or independent, are emotional and intuitive, must not deviate from their female roles, and are more interested in relationships than in professional accomplishments.

11

List five retirement paths.

1. continuers, do more of the same, but they activities in different ways.
2. adventurers, seek something new.
3. searchers, sound much of their time engaged in trial and error activities.
4. easy gliders, are content to go with the flow.
5. retreaters, those who have given up on forging a new and rewarding life.

12

What are the differences between Freud’s and Steven’s view of awareness?

Freud’s concept of awareness divided the human psyche in two different sections:
1. conscious
2. non conscious.
He divided the non-conscious into two sections:
1. pre-subconscious (where superego and ego are)
2. unconscious (where id is).

Steven’s separated awareness into 3 different sections:
1. awareness of the outside world (sensory)
2. awareness of the inside world (feelings),
3. awareness of fantasy activity (thinking process).

13

What is conscious parenting?

Empowerment, wholeness, consider your thoughts, self-awareness, looking at your inner critic, breaking the cycle, listen to children, not live through your kids, and emotional baggage.

14

What are awareness skills?

Generalizing
focusing
selection
avoiding
duration and flow
connection and interruption
pleseant-unplesant
shittling
intending
process
physical activates-tensing.
It is not about judging.

15

What are the three components of change?

ready, willing, and able.

16

List the four ways ambivalence to change can occur, and explain each way.

1. approach-approach
2. avoidance-avoidance
3. approach-avoidance
4. double approach-avoidance.

17

Feminist and systemic views on Freud and gender.

The view on Freud critics his psychoanalysis saying it pathology and rigidity, and has a lack of focus on gender.
The view on gender is how gender can shape childhood , and how family and culture shapes gender roles.

18

Components of family communication.

Verbal and Nonverbal. Quality of communication may vary on topic.

19

Characteristics of caregiver-child communication that are positive.

Communicate at appropriate level
listening
full explanations
using “I” statements
express your own feelings
be willing to forgive
encourage creative ways to solve problems
verbal communication
nonverbal communication
quality of communication may differ on topic.  

20

Define mindfulness.

an intentional, nonjudgemental awareness and observation of our experiences in the present moment without seeking to change them immediately (much is taken from the Buddhist philosophies).

21

Characteristics of mindfulness.

Allows for stronger therapeutic presence and emotional awareness in session, challenges to just mindfully be with the problem/issue instead of always seek to change it immediately, promotes openness, humanity and acceptance of clients, and effective self-care technique.

22

List the stages of change.

1. Pre contemplation - no intention to change 
2. Contemplation - only aware of a problem
3. Preparation- intent & plan
4. Action- active behaviors
5. Maintenance- sustain behaviors
6. Relapse - speed bumps.

23

What are the three components of self-authorship?

1. trust your internal voice
2. Building an internal foundation 3. Securing internal commitments 

24

Body and self-image for men and women.

When it comes to women:
Up to 8 out of 10 women are dissatisfied with their reflection.
More than half may see a distorted image.
By 13, 50% of girls are unhappy about their appearance.
By 18, 80% of girls are unhappy about their appearance
Even 25 years ago, top models and beauty queens weighed only 8% less than the average woman, now they weigh 23% less. 
When it comes to men:
One in ten people with anorexia are male.
17% of men are on extreme diets.
3% of men binge eat.
4% of men purge after eating.
3% of adolescent boys use performance-enhancing drugs.

25

What are the types and effects of stress?

There are two types of stress:
1. acute (in the moment)
2. chronic (long lasting).
The effects of stress are that chronic stress wears on body and mind, lead to anxiety and depression, and body organs don’t function properly when you are under chronic stress.

26

According to Eisenhower’s box:
1. if it's important and urgent you?
2. if it's not important but urgent?
3. if it's important but not urgent?
4. if it's not important and not urgent?

1. do it now
2. delegate
3. decide. schedule it
4. delete

27

What are common cognitive distortions?

1. Dichotomus (thinking-black and white thinking)
2. selective abstraction (making things abstract),
3. arbitrary inferences (drawing conclusions without proper evidence)
4. overgeneralization (applying a general idea to something specific)
5. personalization (making something personal)
6. magnification and minimization (making something bigger or smaller than it is)
7. labeling and mislabeling (putting labels on people often times incorrect ones)

28

What are the six dimensions of wellness?

1. physical
2. social
3. mental
4. emotional
5. environmental
6. spiritual

29

What is the purpose of a career genogram?

To find your career, and how your family has impacted you career choices.

30

Apply the four principles of motivation interviewing.

(1) Express empathy- I understand, your view makes sense even though it’s not right.
(2) Develop discrepancy- so it helps this way; and but not this way, you have when drinking, and when you drink, what else happens.
(3) Roll with resistance- others want you to stop but you don’t want to; you don’t have to stop partying, what ca you do to balance.
(4) Support self-efficacy -I believe you can do it, you’ve done it before.