Flashcards in Machinegun employment Deck (77)
What are the classes of fire?
1. Respect to the ground
2. Respect to the weapon
3. Respect to the target
What is trajectory?
The path of the fired round in flight to the target
What is maximum ordinate?
The highest point of the trajectory between the muzzle of the weapon and the base of the target
When does the maximum ordinate occur in the trajectory?
About 2/3 of the distance between the muzzle of the weapon and the target
Explain cone of fire...
Each round fired in a burst from the same weapon has a slightly different trajectory. The pattern these rounds create on the way to the target is the cone of fire
How is the cone of fire created?
By vibrations of the gun, variations in ammunition, and variations in atmospheric conditions
What are the two ways to determine round impact?
1. The beaten zone (primary)
2. Tracer rounds (secondary)
What is danger space?
The space between the gun and target where the trajectory rises less than 1.8m (average height of a man) from the ground
What are the two types of fire in respect to the ground?
1. Grazing fire
2. Plunging fire
What is grazing fire?
Fire that occurs when the center of the cone of fire rises less than 1m off the ground
What is plunging fire?
Fire that occurs when DANGER SPACE is within the beaten zone. Plunging fire occurs at longer ranges when firing from high ground onto low ground or when firing onto abruptly rising ground
What are the six classes of fire in respect to the weapon?
2. Traversing fire
3. Searching fire
4. Traversing and searching fire
5. Swinging traverse
6. Free gun
Define "fixed" fire
Fire delivered against a point target when depth and width of the beaten zone covers the target. Only one point of aim is needed to provide target coverage
Define "traversing" fire
Fire distributed in WIDTH with successive changes in direction. The gunner selects several aiming points throughout the width of the target that are close enough to provide coverage without wasting ammunition
Define "searching" fire
Fire distributed in DEPTH by changes in elevation. The gunner selects several points of aim. Changes to aim points depend on the range/slope of the ground
Define "traversing and searching" fire
Fire distributed in WIDTH and DEPTH by making changes in elevation and direction. Provides good target coverage
Define "swinging traverse"
Wider distance covered with distribution of fire laterally; no changes in elevation or range. Targets usually have great width.
Define "free gun"
Fire distributed against a target that requires rapid, major changes in direction AND elevation that are difficult to make with the T and E
What are the four types of fire in respect to the target?
1. Frontal fire
2. Flanking fire
3. Oblique fire
4. Enfilade fire
Define "frontal fire"
Frontal fire occurs when the long axis of the beaten zone is at a right angle to the front of the target (e.g firing at the front of a target)
Define "flanking fire"
Flanking fire occurs when firing at the side of a target
Define "oblique fire"
Oblique fire is when the long axis of the beaten zone is at an angle other than a right angle to the front of the target
Define "enfilade fire"
Enfilade fire is when the long axis of the beaten zone coincides with the long axis of the target. This type of fire is either frontal or flanking. It is the most desirable type of fire with respect to a target, because it makes maximum use of the beaten zone
What class of fire (in respect to the weapon) is used for point targets?
What technique and class of fire (in respect to the weapon) is used for area targets, e.g. linear targets with depth?
Aim center mass, traverse and search to either flank and then reverse to the other flank. Work from the center-out.
Target engagement technique for linear targets (i.e. targets with WIDTH)?
Initial point of aim is the target's midpoint; using traverse fire, work from center-out
Target engagement technique for deep targets (i.e. targets with DEPTH)?
Initial point of aim is the target's midpoint; using searching fire, work from center-out
How do gunners work in pairs?
When engaging targets, each gunner fire on his half of the target. The gunners DIVIDE THE TARGET IN HALF. They then divide each respective half into two sections. Using the midpoint reference of each section, both gunners distribute fire by applying the direction and elevation changes for best coverage, working their way from the middle of their respective sections out to the left/right limit of their target, and then back inward. A rapid rate of fire is used after fire superiority is gained, talking the guns.
What is the purpose of "talking guns?"
By default, it give a sitrep on the other friendly gun teams (e.g. that their gun is up and ammunition is not black). Also, conserves ammunition