Flashcards in Lecture 5 - Globalisation And Political Institutions Deck (37)
The European Union is an example of many of the trends of globalisation. However it's not fully global. List 5 things what it creates?
1. Reduction of power of state
2. Liberalised economy
3. Politically liberal
4. Linguistic domination
5. Reduction in tariffs and borders
Global political institutions - political institutions are slow to change and historically economic developments move quicker than political. List 3 things why this is?
1. Danger of instability
2. No global political authority
3. Tensions between nation states remain key to global instability
The UN are a global institution concerned with stability. Also international law and human rights. However what issues are there?
There's no proper system of international law an stability
For law to be credible it must have:
What challenges face the UN?
- the security council
- the general assembly
- UNSC dominated by 5 permanent states
- the USA as a global actor
USA are the core actor in what?
the USA is the core actor in the UNSC, what is it prepared to do? List 3
1. Deploy troop abroad with assertive ROE
2. It has global military coverage
3. US are the only 'global policemen'
Name 2 areas the US failed in intervention and 2 they succeeded
- El Salvador
What are the NATO?
Regional actors as peacekeepers, want to destroy communism and do humanitarian interventions
List 5 interventions done by NATO
Global law has become what?
After WWII what has happened towards global war? List 3
- UN Deceleration of HR
- Int Cov Civil and Pol Rights
- Int Cov Econ and Soc rights
However ignored by many states
International law - what would be classed as a crime against this?
Humanity/ war crimes e.g
- Int Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia
- Int tribunal for Rwanda
- Criminal court for Cambodia
The enforcement of relevant law
Who supports International law?
International criminal court
Who refuses to sign up to international law and why?
US as it conducts bilateral agreements with states which have US complex relationship to international law
The idea of human rights is the core to what type of globalisation?
Who opposes human rights?
Singapore, Malaysia, China , Japan
Also, China and Russia who see state sovereignty as vital
Samuel Huntington devised clash of civilisations, what does it consist of?
Cultural not economic etc
Eight cultural blocks
Biggest source of conflict - West, Islamic and Chinese world
Huntington also warns what? 2 things
Western forcing culture on other will lead to war
Concept of blow back - 9/11
Criticism of Huntington
Fails to recognise linkages between civilisations
Ben barbers theory?
Jihad vs McWorld
Jihad vs McWorld what are they?
McWorld - forces of economic globalisation
Jihad - reaction against it
Also a metaphor for anti western, anti universalist struggle throughout the world
Ben Barber summarise in 5 points
1. Power of neo liberalism, advertising, culture and consumption creates resistance
2. Need to (re)create a community through nation, ethnicity, religion
3. May be violent opposition
4. Resistance often uses globalisation
5. Problems with Barbers ideas
What's Paul Colliers theory?
The Bottom Billion
Paul Collier opposite to Huntington and Barber, list 5 aspects of his theory?
1. Poorer countries likely to be conflict prone
2. They have natural resources (greed vs grievance)
3. More isolated
4. Average GDP of conflict prone countries $19bn
5. Complex interdependence
List 5 more ways Collier tries to resolve it?
1. Average cost of war to them $50bn
2. Solution more globalisation not less
3. Help stabilise them
4. Then integrate them... E.g via trade
5. Even foreign intervention e.g UK in Sierra Leone collier estimates saved country $30bn
There is an idea of a New War, list 4 points in context with the idea?
1. A new type of organised violence has developed
2. Civilian focused
3. How is it classified?
4. Mary Kaldor says modern type of organised violence is 'new'
What are the 7 key points to an Old War?
1. State, war is fought between States
2. Clear distinction between combatants and non combatants
3. Civilian deaths were not an end in themselves
4. War economy
5. Strategy - take territory through military means
6. Laws of War
7. Distinction between war and peace
8 key points of new wars?
1. Privatisation and internationalization of conflict
2. These groups have an interest in keeping the war going
3. More non formal violence
4. Strategy - e.g child soldiers in Sierra Leone
5. Focus on identity politics
6. Impact of globalisation
7. No separation between war and crime
8. Produces a political rather than a military challenge
What is shadow globalisation list some key point?
- people smuggling
- hijacking of aid
- money laundering
- easy access to globalised financial system