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Flashcards in Lecture 2 - Development Deck (36)
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1

Two types of globalisation processes what is hypermobility and and time space compression?

Hypermobility is of people, goods but also money

Time space compression is real and perceptible distances

2

Global shrinkage is what?

the effect of changing transport technologies on ‘real’ distance (McHale, 1969)

3

Globalisation implies what?

Change and uneveness

4

Why does unevenness occour?

Processes – (post-Fordism)
Regimes of Accumulation – (capitalism creates but also copes with crisis)
Temporal

5

What is Fordism?

economic production based around factories (18th-20th Century)

6

What is post fordism?

Small-scale production
Economy of scope
Specialisation of job and product
ICT
Different focus on type of consumer
Service industries
Increased number of women in the workplace

7

What are limits of globalisation?

the importance of the local

local-global oppositions (McGrew, 1992)

homogenisation vs. differentiation

centralisation vs. decentralisation

8

How do we measure development?

Wealth, economic structure, diet, health, demographics, UN Human Development Index

9

Human development index was cordianted by UN what does it measure?

Education
Life expectancy
Literacy
Standard of Living

10

What is the Fisher-Clark Theory?

A theory of structural change

11

Fisher-Clark proposed economies have how many stages of production?

3

12

What is stage 1 of the Fisher Clark theory?

Primary production – extraction of raw materials through e.g. agric, fishing, forestry

13

What is stage 2 of the Fisher-Clark theory?

Secondary production – industrial production through manufacturing and construction

14

What is stage 3 of the Fisher-Clark theory?

Tertiary production – provision of services (economic maturity)

Assumes that demand for services grows with income

15

There are 5 critiques of the Fisher-Clark model, what are they?

-Not overtly spatial
-Universalism of model there are no internal variations
-Western fit of model
-Assumes progressive development – in practice, some economies have leaped to service economy through e.g. tourism (The Gambia, Kenya, South Africa)
-Contemporary variations of service economies – emergence of ‘quaternary service sector’

16

The modernisation theory developed by who?

Walt Rostow (1960)

17

How many stages did the modernisation theory discover and what were they about?

5 stages of economic growth…and identifies factors creating development/maturity

18

5 stages of the modernisation theory. Number 1 is the traditional stage what is this?

The agriculture and hunter-gatherer stage - social structures dominated by family, clan or tribal groupings; pre nation state

19

Number 2 of modernisation theory is Preconditions for take off, what is this?

Savings/investment rates above population growth rates, increased importance of the nation state, elite status not based on family or clan, changes are often triggered by external extrusion

20

Number 3 of the modernisation theory is take off, what is this?

triggered by internal/external stimulus e.g political revolution. Higher rates of investment and saving, substantial manufacturing sector, banks and other intrusions in places

21

Number 4 of the modernisation theory is drive to maturity, what is this?

Expansion of use and range in technology, growth of new economic sectors, investments/savings 10-20% of national income

22

Number 5 of modernisation theory is age of high mass consumption, what is this?

Widespread consumption of durable consumer goods and services, increased spending on welfare services

23

Dependency Theory was developed by who?

Andre Gunder Frank (1967)

24

What are the bases of the dependency theory?

Nature of under-development
Established spatial power-relations
Development and under-development

25

The dependency used Latin America as what?

As a model metropolis and satellites highlighting unequal power relationships

26

There are 3 basic assumptions of the dependency theory, what are they?

(1) Poor nations provide raw materials for the rich states
(2) Rich states facilitate a system of dependency
(3) All attempts to get out of dependency are resisted by the rich states

27

In context to the dependency theory, how does technology work?

The dominant countries have technological and industrial advantage, therefore they ensure economic system works in own self-interest

28

In context tot he dependency the world is not what?

On a level playing field, the only way to move LEDCs from poverty cycles would be reform

29

The dependency suggests 4 practical recommendations what are they?

Promotion of domestic industry
Import limitations
Forbid foreign investment
Nationalisation

30

There are 4 critiques of the dependency theory, what are they?

1. It assumes static spatial relationships, whereas power relations are fluid
2. It is politically unrealistic
3. Corruption can happen
4. There is a lack of competition = inefficiency