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1

when to use descriptive research

To describe group characteristics
-mean, median, and mode

To estimate proportion of units who have particular
characteristics
-proportion or percent

To make specific predictions
-Correlation, regression

2

what questions does descriptive research answer

Typically answers
-Who (are firm’s competitors or customers?)
-What (products, brands, etc… are being purchased?)
-Where (are consumers buying the products?)
-When (are purchases made?)
-How (are products being used?

3

scanner data

observation research

4

Cross sectional studies

–describe population at one point in time
– sample surveys

5

Longitudinal studies

– same sample is measured repeatedly
–panel studies

6

Primary Data:

Information collected specifically
for the purpose of the investigation at hand
(focus groups, IDI, ethnographies, surveys, etc.)

7

Secondary Data:

Information not gathered for the
immediate study at hand but
for some other purpose
(publications, internal data, syndicated data, etc.)

8

secondary data in descriptive research

Demand Estimation
Monitoring the Environment
Segmentation and Targeting
Developing a business intelligence system

9

why use secondary data?

Better problem definition
Suggest further data
Provide guidance for next steps of research
Suggest better research methods
Substitute for primary data

10

internal secondary data

Marketing activities (Inputs)
Cost / operations information (Process)
Sales / patronage results (Outcomes)
Distributor reports and feedback
Customer feedback

11

published secondary data

Government
Trade associations
Newspapers / periodicals
Annual reports
Private studies

12

syndicated secondary data

Store Audits
Purchase Panels
Scanner Data
Geodemographic Data
Ad Exposure Data
Behavioral Measurement

13

external secondary data

published or syndicated

14

Retail Measurement

 Track product performance and market dynamics

15

Consumer Panels

Understand consumer demographics, attitudes and
shopping behavior

16

Customized Research

Everything from test marketing to in-store observations

17

Decision Support

Tools that enable data analysis, interpretation and insight

18

producing scanner data

Items scanned at Checkout
Price, Quantity, UPC Item Description Recorded
Scanner Tape Sent to Nielsen or via Modem

19

customer panel

-Representative Panel of Households
-Records all purchases made
-Records coupon use
-Participants are provided
incentive to participate

20

internal sources of secondary data

-Inputs (Marketing activities and Customer database)
-Process (Inventory management and Operations management and Accounting data
-Outcomes (Sales / patronage results, Customer feedback, and Channel member feedback)

21

customer relationship management

men's basketball rewards program

22

customer targeting

-It is difficult to select customers without
knowing anything about them.

-Usually, Direct Marketing monitors several key
"indicators", or "variables", which help
determine who is most likely to purchase from
our catalog.
-Recency (months since last purchase)
-Frequency (number of orders)
-Average Order Size