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1

what is research design?

Study blueprint
-the framework/plan for a study used as a guide for collecting/analyzing data

The research design tells us
-What type of research
-How to collect the data
-How to analyze the data

2

types of research

exploratory, descriptive, and causal

3

exploratory research

"explore"- useful for discovery/insight
-why might this be happening?
-Gain insights and discover ideas
-Formulate hypotheses
-Clarify the problem and generate possible explanations

4

descriptive research

"describe" -describe market characteristics or functions
-how often is this the case?
-Describe the characteristics of a group
-Describe the behavior of a group
-Test the generalizability of insights
-Look for relationships

5

causal research

"cause and effect" - determine cause and effect relationships
-Test for cause and effect
-Choose between alternatives
-if we do this, what is likely to happen?

6

examples of exploratory research

-Lit. reviews
-Experience surveys
-Case analyses/benchmarking
-Focus groups
-Depth interviews
-Projective techniques
-Observations (ethnography)

7

methods of exploratory research

case studies, focus groups, qualitative research

8

characteristics of exploratory research

flexible, versatile, but not conclusive

9

descriptive research examples

-Telephone surveys
-Mail surveys
-Web surveys
-Panels

10

methods for descriptive research

surveys, panels, scanner data

11

characteristics of descriptive research

preplanned, structured, conclusive

12

examples of causal research

Lab experiments, Field studies, and Test markets

13

methods of causal reasearch

experiments

14

characteristics of causal research

manipulation and control of variables

15

focus groups

discussion with loose structure
Advantages- fast and interactive
Disadvantages- group restraints

16

When to use a focus group

•Generate ideas
•Understand consumer vocabulary
•Recall needs, motives, perceptions, attitudes

17

Elements of focus groups

•Size
•Participants
•Recruiting
•Moderator

18

Depth Interviews

one to one interviews
Emphasis on personal experience and specific topic guided by interviewer

Advantages: no influence from others, good for sensitive topics
Disadvantages: expensive, time consuming

19

Applications of depth interviews

•Product use/interaction
•Social/political issues
•Expert surveys, “key informants”

20

Projective Techniques

Respondents projected into simulated activities

21

projective techniques are useful when respondents may be:

• Hesitant to answer direct questions
• Unable to answer direct questions

22

Common types if preojective techniques

• Word association
• Third person techniques
• Sentence completion
• Cartoon test
• Picture interpretation

23

ZMET (Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique)

• Probe attitudes and feelings through the use of metaphors and visual images.

• Drawbacks
o Interpretation and analysis requires great skill, very subjective.

24

observations

Observe customers in their natural surroundings to
understand unarticulated needs

Advantages
• Natural environments

Disadvantages
• Expensive/time consuming

25

ethnography

the study of human behavior in it's natural context