Flashcards in Lecture 03-Pharmacology Deck (17)
___ is the branch of medicine concerned with the use, effect, and modes of action of a drug.
What factors can affect pharmacokinetics?
-demographics (age, gender, etc.)
-genetics (body type)
The ___ of the drug refers to its ability to exert their actual effects or even side-effects after its chemical make-up has changed.
The ACTIVITY of the drug
___ is the branch of pharmacology associated with the movement of a drug on a body.
___ is the branch of pharmacology associated with the effects of a drug and mechanisms of action.
What is the difference between enteral and parenteral administration of drugs?
Enteral = administered into the mouth and digestive tract (easy, less predictable absorption)
Parenteral = administered elsewhere in the body than the digestive tract (difficult, more predictable absorption)
The following have to deal with ___:
-absorption and distribution
Concerning absorption and distribution of a drug in the body, all pharmaceuticals are affected by:
-chemical properties of the drug
-barrier and carriers of the drug in the body
=> barriers = restrict movement of drugs
=> carriers = active transport systems at cell membrane
True or false: storage of a drug in tissues (fat, muscle, bones, organs, etc.) is typically associated with tissue damage as it can disrupt function of the tissue.
Note; storage of the drug in tissues can cause chemical redistribution = uncontrolled delivery of medication into bloodstream after treatment ends
___ is the percentage of the administered dose that appears in the bloodstream.
___ is how much of the drug remains at is passes through the liver first before it gets to the bloodstream.
1. Bioavailability - i.e, if you give 50 mg of a drug and 25 mg of the drug appears in the bloodstream, the drugs is 50% bioavailable
2. First-pass metabolism
-dependent on whether-or-not the drug was given enterally or not (if not, it doesn’t generally go through first-pass metabolism as it is directly delivered to the site)
What are the phases of drug testing?
Animal trials: typically completed on rodents and can progress to other, larger animals dependent on the type of drugs or the results of the animal trials (significant side-effects)
1. Small number of health subjects (several months) -establishes dosages and side-effects
2. Intended population (small; months to years) -establishes whether the drug is effective in treating what it is intended to treat (efficacy)
3. Intended population (large; months to years)
4. Long-term effectiveness (compares to other drugs on the market and cost-effectiveness)
When a drug is metabolized it is called ___.
This process occurs in the ___.
1. Bio transformation
Note; drugs are also designed to break down certain ways in our bodies
also note; metabolites can still exert changes on the body
What is an orphan drug?
A drug that is reluctantly sponsored for FDA approval because of its limited scope of treatment
-generally used to treat rare diseases
What does the half-life of a drug refer to?
The amount of time it takes for 50% of the active form of the drug to be eliminated by the body (where 50% of the drug is eliminated in each half-time period).
-primary way we can determine how long a drug will stay active in the body
What does if mean for generic and brand name drugs to be bioequivalent to each other?
-same amount and type of active ingredient
Why is the half-life of a drug important?
It helps determine dosing.