Lecture 03-Pharmacology Flashcards Preview

Differential Diagnosis > Lecture 03-Pharmacology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 03-Pharmacology Deck (17)
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___ is the branch of medicine concerned with the use, effect, and modes of action of a drug.



What factors can affect pharmacokinetics?

-demographics (age, gender, etc.)
-genetics (body type)
-other chemicals


The ___ of the drug refers to its ability to exert their actual effects or even side-effects after its chemical make-up has changed.

The ACTIVITY of the drug


___ is the branch of pharmacology associated with the movement of a drug on a body.



___ is the branch of pharmacology associated with the effects of a drug and mechanisms of action.



What is the difference between enteral and parenteral administration of drugs?

Enteral = administered into the mouth and digestive tract (easy, less predictable absorption)
-buccal (orallly)

Parenteral = administered elsewhere in the body than the digestive tract (difficult, more predictable absorption)


The following have to deal with ___:
-absorption and distribution



Concerning absorption and distribution of a drug in the body, all pharmaceuticals are affected by:

-administration route
-chemical properties of the drug
-barrier and carriers of the drug in the body
=> barriers = restrict movement of drugs
=> carriers = active transport systems at cell membrane


True or false: storage of a drug in tissues (fat, muscle, bones, organs, etc.) is typically associated with tissue damage as it can disrupt function of the tissue.


Note; storage of the drug in tissues can cause chemical redistribution = uncontrolled delivery of medication into bloodstream after treatment ends


___ is the percentage of the administered dose that appears in the bloodstream.

___ is how much of the drug remains at is passes through the liver first before it gets to the bloodstream.

1. Bioavailability - i.e, if you give 50 mg of a drug and 25 mg of the drug appears in the bloodstream, the drugs is 50% bioavailable

2. First-pass metabolism
-dependent on whether-or-not the drug was given enterally or not (if not, it doesn’t generally go through first-pass metabolism as it is directly delivered to the site)


What are the phases of drug testing?

Animal trials: typically completed on rodents and can progress to other, larger animals dependent on the type of drugs or the results of the animal trials (significant side-effects)

Human trials
1. Small number of health subjects (several months) -establishes dosages and side-effects
2. Intended population (small; months to years) -establishes whether the drug is effective in treating what it is intended to treat (efficacy)
3. Intended population (large; months to years)
4. Long-term effectiveness (compares to other drugs on the market and cost-effectiveness)


When a drug is metabolized it is called ___.
This process occurs in the ___.

1. Bio transformation
2. Liver

Note; drugs are also designed to break down certain ways in our bodies
also note; metabolites can still exert changes on the body


What is an orphan drug?

A drug that is reluctantly sponsored for FDA approval because of its limited scope of treatment
-generally used to treat rare diseases


What does the half-life of a drug refer to?

The amount of time it takes for 50% of the active form of the drug to be eliminated by the body (where 50% of the drug is eliminated in each half-time period).

-primary way we can determine how long a drug will stay active in the body


What does if mean for generic and brand name drugs to be bioequivalent to each other?

-same amount and type of active ingredient
-some administration
-same pharmacokinetics


Why is the half-life of a drug important?

It helps determine dosing.


During elimination of the drug, what is happening and by what processes?

-active form of the drug is turned into a less active form (metabolite) and is removed from the body
=> first-pass metabolism
=> excretion (i.e, urine, breast milk, sweat, etc.)
=> note; may also be called an “active metabolite” if it still has therapeutic effect