Fracture (Imaging) Flashcards Preview

Differential Diagnosis > Fracture (Imaging) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Fracture (Imaging) Deck (24)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are 4 examples of abnormal stresses that can occur with/in fractures?

  1. stress
  2. pathologic
  3. periprosthetic
  4. bone graft

2

Bone Healing

  1. Callus: ___ bone heals via this process
  2. Creep Substitution: ___ bone heals via this process
  3. Osteoblastic activity: ___ bone heals via this process

  1. Cortical bone
  2. Cancellous bone
  3. Compressed bone

3

Which type of imaging is primarily used to evaluate MSK trauma?

Conventional Radiography

4

Alignment of Fractures

  1. ___ = fragments are not displaced
  2. ___ = fragments are no longer in anatomic position (described by relative displacements, such as medial, lateral, distracted, etc.)

  1. Non-displaced
  2. Displaced

5

When considering bone healing and setting as part of medical management for pediatrics, the clinican must be able to appreciate where the bone is going to ___, the distance form the ___ (closer is better), and the potential for bone ___.

  1. remodel
  2. growth plate (closer is better)
  3. bone length discrepancies

6

A clinician may choose to use ___ to save time by screening for abdominal, chest, and spine injuries at once.

Computed Tomography (CT)

7

What are the 5 types of fractures in the Salter-Harris Classificaiton for epiphyseal fractures (pediatrics)?

  1. Type I = straight across
  2. Type II = above (most common - 75%)
  3. Type III = below
  4. Type 4 = through
  5. Type 5 = eraser of growth plate (crush injury)

8

Types of Fractures:

  1. ___  = all cortices broken (2 fragments)
  2. ___ = cortices partially broken
  3. ___ = >2 fragments

  1. Complete
  2. Incomplete
  3. Comminuted

9

____ usually occur secondary to:

  • Failure to order image
  • Failure to recognize on image
  • subtle fractures

 

Commonly Missed Fractures

10

Commonly Missed Fractures

  • Spine
    • C_/C_
    • C_/C_
    • ___ fracture (osteoporotic)
  • LE
    • Femoral Neck
    • ___
    • ___
    • Talar Dome
  • UE
    • ____
    • ____

  • Spine
    • C1/C2
    • C8/C7
    • Compression fracture
  • LE
    • femoral neck
    • Patella
    • Calcaneous
    • Talar Dome
  • UE
    • scaphoid
    • Radial head

11

Age, degree of local trauma, amount of bone loss, type of bone, how well immoblizied, infection, local malignancy, radiation necrosis, hormones, avascular necrosis, and local stress are all factors that can influence ___.

Rate of healing for bone

12

What are the 3 healing phases of bone?

  1. Inflammatory (acute)
  2. Reparative (sub-acute)
  3. remodeling (chronic)

13

In general, CT is primarily used to evualte __.

Complex anatomy

14

Closed fractures are often associated with which type of fracture?

Simple Fractures

15

In regards to fracture description, what category does the following fall under:

  • impaction
  • depression
  • compression
  • avulsion

Special features of fractures

16

In regards to pedaitric fracture description, what are 3 possible locations for the fracture to be located?

  1. Epiphysis (growth plate)
  2. Metaphysis
  3. Diaphysis

17

True or False: fractures do not have patterns that can be predicted.

False.

Fractures have patterns that can be predicted by the condition of the bone (behavior of the bone qualities) and the mode of injury.

18

In general, MRI is primarily used to evaulate ___.

Soft tissue Injuries

19

Surgical Intervention Types: might be needed if bone healing doesn't occur properly

  1. ___ = externally reduced
  2. ___ = internally reduced
  3. ___ = artificial means to stabilize fractures (e.g. screws, cage, or plates) => internally (Ilizarov technique) or externally

  1. Closed Reduction
  2. Open Reduction
  3. Fixation

20

___ = protocol series of radiographs that screen injuries post-trauma.

Includes:

  • Lateral C-spine
  • AP chest
  • AP pelvis

Trauma Survey

21

  • Growth plates
  • growth lines
  • secondary centers of ossification
  • nutrient foramina
  • cartilage

Are all examples of imaging concerns for which age-group of patients?

Pediatrics

22

Open fractures are often associated with which type of fracture?

Compound

23

Directions of Fracture Lines

  • Referenced according to the long axis of the bone = what 4 types?

  • transverse
  • Spiral
  • longitudinal
  • oblique

24

What are the 3 types of incomplete fractures seen in children?

  1. greenstick
  2. plastic bowing (low load, prolonged stress)
  3. torus fracture = buckel (load is really high so bone folds in on itself)