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Flashcards in GI embryology Deck (43)
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1

foregut, midgut and hindgut divisions

foregut - pharynx to duodenum
midgut - duodenum to proximal 2/3 colon
hindgut - distal 1/3 colon to anal canal

2

foregut rotation

90 degrees clockwise

3

failure of lateral fold closure causes

gastroschisis or amphalocele

4

duodenal atresia due to...

failure to recanalize (trisomy 21)

5

jejunal, ileal, or colon atresia due to

vascular accident

6

midgut development

6th week it herniates through the umbilical ring
10th week returns to abd cavity and rotates around the SMA
=270 degree couterclockwise turn (view from below)
90 during herniation and 180 as it goes back

7

gastroschisis

extrusion of abd contents through abd folds NOT covered by peritoneum

8

omphalocele

persistence of herniation into umbilical cord; IS sealed by peritoneum (not incontact with amniotic fluid)

9

EA with distal TEF

drooling, choking and vomiting with first feeding
TEF allows air to enter stomach visible on CXR
cannot pass a nasogastric tube into stomach!

presents with polyhydramnios

10

isolated EA CXR

CXR shows gassless abdomen

11

congential pyloric stenosis

hypertrophy of pylorus causes obstruction
palpable olive mass in epigastric region and nonbilious projectile vomiting at 2-6 weeks old

12

achalasia

failure of LES to relax

13

oligohydramnios vs poly hydramnios

oligo - too little amniotic fluid, decreased volume
poly - too much; fetus isnt swallowing

14

in pharyngeal gut, lining is derived from?
cartilage, muscles, and nerves from?

endoderm
pharyngeal arches

15

in for, mid, and hind guts,
epithelial lining is from?
muscles and CT from?
enteric nervous system from?

endoderm
splanchic mesoderm
neural crest

16

gut tube is suspended by

dorsal mesentery

17

midgut is temporarily connected to yolk sac by____

vitelline duct

18

what factor regulates epithelial-mesenchyme interactions?

SHH (sonic hedgehog)

19

SHH induces the creation of

HOX which diactates the head to tail regions

20

branches of aorta to supply
foregut
midgut
hind gut

fg = celiac
mg = Superior mesenteric
hg = inferior mesenteric

21

foregut boundaries

oropharyngeal membrane to the respiratory diverticulum

22

LARP

stomach development
left anterior, right posterior

23

development of stomach curvatures

dorsal side grows faster --> lesser and greater curvatures
LARP

24

retroperitoneal organs

SAD PUCKER
supra adrenal glands
aorta/ivc
duodenum (2nd and 3rd)
pancreas (except tail)
ureters
colon (ascending and descencing)
kidneys
esophagus
rectum

25

allantois

During the third week of development, the allantois protrudes into the area of the urogenital sinus. Between the 5th and 7th week of development, the allantois will become the urachus, a duct between the bladder and the yolk sac. A patent allantois can result in urachal cyst.

26

improper fixation of mesentery -->

volvulus

27

fecal discharge at umbilicus is due to

vitelline fistula

meckels diverticulum does not connect with outside; blunt outpouch that is connected to umbilicus internally

28

hirschsprungs disease

aganglionic megacolon
absence of enteric ganglia in bowel wall due to defect in neural crest migration
causes megacolon, constipation and obstruction

29

anal canal differences above and below pectinate line
origin?
innervation?
arterial supply?
venous?
lymph?

above: hindgut endoderm, autonomic visceral nerves, inf mesenteric artery, portal vein, internal iliac lymph nodes

below: proctodeum ectoderm, pudendal nerve/somatics (sensitive to stimuli), internal pudendal artery, caval venous system, superficial inguinal lymph nodes

30

liver pancreas and gallbladder are belong to?

foregut