portal triad is within the
(proper hepatic artery, portal vein, common bile duct) hepatoduodenal ligament
gastrohepatic ligament is inside the
falciform ligaments connects
liver to the anterior abd wall
gastrohepatic ligament connects
liver to lesser curvature of stomach; contains gastric arteries may be cut to access lower sac
connects greater curvature to spleen; contains short gastrics and left gastroepiploics;
what separates greater and lesser sacs on the left?
connects spleen to posterior abd wall; contains splenic vessels
to control bleeding in portal triad, you can compress the..
hepatoduodenal ligament (pringle maneuver)
layers of gut wall from inside to outside
MSMS mucosa (epithelium, lamina propria, muscularis mucosa) submucosa (includes submucosal plexus = meissners) muscularis externa (includes myenteric plexus = auerbachs plexus) serosa (when intraperitoneal)/adventitia (when retro)
muscularis externa has two layers -->
inner circular layer outer longitudinal layer
plicae circularis are where?
jejenum and proximal ileum
peyers patches are where?
largest number of goblet cells in small intestine?
colon has _____ but no ____
crypts of lieberkuhn; villi
transverse (3rd) part of duodenum gets trapped between SMA and aorta --> causes intestinal obstruction
top to bottom middle three: celiac trunk (t12), SMA (L1), IMA (L3)
right : right renal a, right gonadal a
left: left inferior phrenic a, left middle suprarenal a, left gonadal a, left common iliac --> int and ext iliac a
bottom: mediac sacral a
bifurcation at L4
foregut artery and parasympathetic innervation
midgut artery and innervation
SMA and vagus
hindgut artery and innervation
IMA and pelvic nerve
branches of celiac trunk
common hepatic, splenic and left gastric
signs of portal HTN
varices of gut, butt, caput (esophagus, umbilicus, and rectum)
left gastric --> esophageal
paraumbilical --> epigastric veins of anterior abd wall (caput medusae)
superior rectal --> middle and inferior rectal (anorectal varices - NOT internal hemorrhoids)
stomach herniates up through esophageal hiatus in diaphragm
indirect inguinal hernia
through internal inguinal ring
direct inguinal hernia
through inguinal triangle
where are the stem cells of GI tract?
stomach vs intestines?
higher in the stomach vs in the pit of the gland of intestines
secretory cell that is secreting hormones to influence GI function
enteroendocrine cells are sensitive to? secrete out which side?
sensitive to luminal contents
secrete out basal side
secretory cell involved in host defense?
secretory cell involved in host defense located close to the lumen where pathogens are located
intrinsic innervation of the GI tract?
enteric nervous system