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Flashcards in Final exam study guide Deck (36)
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1

Risk assessment

Refers to the process of conceptualizing various hazards in order to make judgements about their likelihood and the need for various preventative measures

2

Clinical prediction

-Based on clinical experience and judgement - most intuitive, anecdotal, and subjective
-Is used most often for decisions on death penalty sentences and parole and probation of sex offenders

3

Actuarial prediction

-Based on a statistical formula
-Still requires clinical judgement in scoring

4

Anamnestic prediction

-Based on an analysis of how a particular person has acted in the past in similar situations
-Sometimes called "structured clinical judgement"

5

Which type of risk assessment performs most accurately

Actuarial prediction fares better than clinical prediction, however clinical prediction is still used in court

6

Problems related to recidivism research

-People commit different crimes than what gets them arrested
-Cannot study those that do not get released
-Uses only police records, not everybody who commits a crime gets caught

7

Early prediction of dangerousness research regarding mentally ill individuals

-Mentally ill individuals are less prone to violence and have a lower arrest rate than the general population

8

How do base rates for behavior affect our ability to predict the behavior

-Proportion likely to relapse
-Assess how recidivism in the sample treated differs from the base rate for the population

9

Variables assessed in risk prediction for violence

-Static - non changeable features of the individual or historical events

-Dynamic - can change over time, psychotic symptoms or lack of insight

-Risk management - focus on the nature of situation or environment such as lack of supervision after release or lack of social support

10

What is the best predictor for violence recidivism

PCL-R (Psychopathy checklist revised)

11

What were the changes brought about as a result of the Tarasoff case

-When a patient poses a serious risk of violence, therapists are obliged to take reasonable care to protect the intended victim
-Violates bond of trust between clients and psychotherapists

12

Factors that make it less likely for a sex offender to recidivate

-More serious sex offense histories
-Higher psychopathy scores
-Deviant sexual interest as measured with plethysmography

13

Risk factors for growing up to be a batterer

-Witnessed or experienced violence in childhood
-Low self esteem
-Anger, stress, depression

14

Why is it important to be able to predict the likelihood of child abuse

-For case workers to determine when to leave/return/remove a child from a home

15

What is the extent of the damage caused by battering

-Currently the leading cause of injury in American woman

16

What is the usual scenario for women who kill their batterer

-Unknown factors, could be based on the man's behavior or women who are subject to harsher abuse, older, less well educated, and worse at coping

17

Battered women syndrome

-A woman's presumed reactions to a pattern of continual physical and psychological abuse inflicted on her by her mate
-No test can detect this

18

The role of a forensic psychologist in cases of domestic violence

-Assessment
-Conduct a clinical interview
-Examine medical records
-Talk to third parties
-Social framework testimony

19

How do men and women jurors in general view victims of domestic violence

-Men tend to be more protective towards women
-Women tend to be more negatively judgmental toward other women

20

Major symptoms of PTSD

-Avoidance, increased arousal/reactions to reminds of event
-Rape victims may be the largest group of PTSD sufferers

21

How are confessions viewed by juries

-Juries are highly influenced by confessions

22

Miranda warning

-When a suspect is placed under the impression that he or she is not free to leave, police officers are expected to read the Miranda warning

-Right to an attorney during and after the interrogation
-The right to a court appointed attorney, if the suspect cannot afford one
-If you decide to answer questions without a lawyer present, you have the right to stop answering at any time

23

Miranda v. Arizona

Ernesto Miranda was arrested for rape and kidnapping based on a confession given to the police after being interrogated for over two hours with no lawyer. The Supreme Court ruled that any statement stemming from a police interrogation was involuntary and inadmissible unless the police detectives provided the suspect with his or her Miranda rights.

24

Confession

An admission of guilt - the most damaging evidence against a defendant in a criminal trial

25

5th amendment

One's right against compelled self-incrimination

26

Supreme court rulings on confessions

1936 - confessions could no longer be physically coerced
-1959 - coercion includes psychological pressure as well as physical brutality
-1964 - Esobedo v. Illinois stated that the accused had a right to meet with his or her attorney before a confession was obtained
-1966 - Miranda v. Arizona

27

What activities are legal for police to engage in during an interrogation

-Open with a positive statement
-Lie/mislead suspect
-Minimize/maximize the behavior
-Build rapport

28

Requirements to become a trial consultant

-None

29

What type of case is most likely to hire a trial consultant

-Civil trials where a large sum of money is usually at stake

30

What is pretrial publicity

-Attorneys may request a change of venue when the publicity is pervasive and the bias is one sided