Forensic Psych Test #1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Forensic Psych Test #1 Deck (37)
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1

Prejudice

ATTITUDE

-An unjustified evaluative reaction to a member of a group that results from the recipient's membership in that group
-Individual holds same evaluative attitude toward the group as a whole
-Involves prejudgement

2

Discrimination

BEHAVIOR

-A behavior (overt), that accepts one person or rejects another based on his or her membership in a particular group
-Negative actions can be hostile or acts of avoidance
-Can be related to company policy

3

Modern racism

-More nuanced than blatant, still reflects bias and negative feelings and beliefs toward a group
-Often exhibited by individuals who do not consider themselves to be prejudiced

4

Blatant sexism

-Discriminatory actions are visible and obvious

5

Subtle sexism

May be visible but go unnoticed (chivalry, discouragement, exclusion)

6

Covert sexism

Behavior is hidden, clandestine, maliciously motivated, and difficult to document

7

IQ Testing:

Larry P. in California

A judge ruled that IQ tests could not be used as placement tests for African American children

8

IQ Testing:

People in Action on Special Education

A judge in Chicago ruled that IQ tests were not biased and that cultural differences had little effect on the differential performance of children of different races

Judge was uncomfortable relying on expert testimony

9

Affirmative Action

Refers to any procedure that permits consideration of race, gender, disability, national origin, and other variables in order to provide equal opportunity to qualified individuals who have been denied those opportunities because of past discrimination

10

Affirmative Action:

Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978)

-Banned racial quotas
-Went to U.S. Supreme Court who judged university policies as unconstitutional based on violations of the 14th amendment
-Did not conclude that all affirmative action procedures were unconstitutional

11

Civil Rights Act of 1964

Identified race, sex, religion, and national origin as discriminatory criteria.
-Sex was NOT part of the original bill

12

Disparate treatment (discriminatory treatment)

A legal claim that addresses the adverse treatment of a particular individual due to group membership, requires showing harm to only one individual

13

Disparate impact (discriminatory effects)

A legal claim that requires showing that an entire group was adversely affected by a policy/practice

14

Hate crime

-Words or actions intended to harm or intimidate an individual because of his or her membership in a minority group
-May include violent assaults, murder, rape, property crime, threats of violence, intimidation etc. motivated by prejudice

15

-Sexual Harassment:

Meritor Savings Bank V. Vinson

-A bank teller felt pressured into having unwanted sex with her supervisor
-Court agreed that the bank was a hostile work environment
-Court determined that "welcomeness" was not synonymous with "voluntary"
-The employer is responsible for the action of its employees

16

% of women who are victims of sexual harassment

40-60%

17

% of men who are victims of sexual harassment

~19%

18

Sexual harassment:

Harris v. Forklift Systems Inc.

-Victim complained that her boss was crude and offensive
-Lower court rejected her claims on the basis that she did not suffer a significant injury
-Supreme Court took the case because of the inconsistent standards used in the rulings of the lower courts
-Ruled that psychological injury was not necessary and adopted the "reasonable person" standard

19

Legal Custody

-Refers to the right to make major decisions about the child's life

20

Physical custody

-Refers to where the child lives on a day-to-day basis

21

Sole custody

-One parent has both physical and legal custody
-Other parent may or may not have visitation rights

22

Joint or shared custody

-Legal custody may be shared
-Typically one parent is designated as the primary residential parent for physical custody

23

Divided custody

-One parent gains sole custody of one or more children
-Other parent gets sole custody of the others

24

Mediator

-Attempt to help resolve differences through an agreement

Responsibilities:
-Explore options
-Provide a safe environment for communication
-Keep parents focused on the children
-Seek to get agreement in writing

25

When does mediation work best?

-Often works best when mediation is voluntary

26

Sleeper effect

-Based on the Wallerstein study on the effects of divorce on children
-The effects of divorce may not manifest in girls until they are adults

27

When can a personal injury suit be filed?

-Persons who have been harmed can usually collect compensation from perpetrators of that harm, even if a crime is not involved
-Harm to psychological well being

28

Tort

-A legal claim or complaint, in the form of a law suit, committed by one person against another
-Can be for almost any type of physical or psychological damage

29

What is necessary to win a tort case?

-Requires showing that the defendant breached a legal duty that was owed to the plaintiff and that damage resulted due to the breach

30

Standards for expert testimony to be admitted in court

Federal rules of evidence - specialized knowledge
Frye - reliability
Daubert - validity