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Flashcards in Forensic Psych Test #1 Deck (37)
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-An unjustified evaluative reaction to a member of a group that results from the recipient's membership in that group
-Individual holds same evaluative attitude toward the group as a whole
-Involves prejudgement




-A behavior (overt), that accepts one person or rejects another based on his or her membership in a particular group
-Negative actions can be hostile or acts of avoidance
-Can be related to company policy


Modern racism

-More nuanced than blatant, still reflects bias and negative feelings and beliefs toward a group
-Often exhibited by individuals who do not consider themselves to be prejudiced


Blatant sexism

-Discriminatory actions are visible and obvious


Subtle sexism

May be visible but go unnoticed (chivalry, discouragement, exclusion)


Covert sexism

Behavior is hidden, clandestine, maliciously motivated, and difficult to document


IQ Testing:

Larry P. in California

A judge ruled that IQ tests could not be used as placement tests for African American children


IQ Testing:

People in Action on Special Education

A judge in Chicago ruled that IQ tests were not biased and that cultural differences had little effect on the differential performance of children of different races

Judge was uncomfortable relying on expert testimony


Affirmative Action

Refers to any procedure that permits consideration of race, gender, disability, national origin, and other variables in order to provide equal opportunity to qualified individuals who have been denied those opportunities because of past discrimination


Affirmative Action:

Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978)

-Banned racial quotas
-Went to U.S. Supreme Court who judged university policies as unconstitutional based on violations of the 14th amendment
-Did not conclude that all affirmative action procedures were unconstitutional


Civil Rights Act of 1964

Identified race, sex, religion, and national origin as discriminatory criteria.
-Sex was NOT part of the original bill


Disparate treatment (discriminatory treatment)

A legal claim that addresses the adverse treatment of a particular individual due to group membership, requires showing harm to only one individual


Disparate impact (discriminatory effects)

A legal claim that requires showing that an entire group was adversely affected by a policy/practice


Hate crime

-Words or actions intended to harm or intimidate an individual because of his or her membership in a minority group
-May include violent assaults, murder, rape, property crime, threats of violence, intimidation etc. motivated by prejudice


-Sexual Harassment:

Meritor Savings Bank V. Vinson

-A bank teller felt pressured into having unwanted sex with her supervisor
-Court agreed that the bank was a hostile work environment
-Court determined that "welcomeness" was not synonymous with "voluntary"
-The employer is responsible for the action of its employees


% of women who are victims of sexual harassment



% of men who are victims of sexual harassment



Sexual harassment:

Harris v. Forklift Systems Inc.

-Victim complained that her boss was crude and offensive
-Lower court rejected her claims on the basis that she did not suffer a significant injury
-Supreme Court took the case because of the inconsistent standards used in the rulings of the lower courts
-Ruled that psychological injury was not necessary and adopted the "reasonable person" standard


Legal Custody

-Refers to the right to make major decisions about the child's life


Physical custody

-Refers to where the child lives on a day-to-day basis


Sole custody

-One parent has both physical and legal custody
-Other parent may or may not have visitation rights


Joint or shared custody

-Legal custody may be shared
-Typically one parent is designated as the primary residential parent for physical custody


Divided custody

-One parent gains sole custody of one or more children
-Other parent gets sole custody of the others



-Attempt to help resolve differences through an agreement

-Explore options
-Provide a safe environment for communication
-Keep parents focused on the children
-Seek to get agreement in writing


When does mediation work best?

-Often works best when mediation is voluntary


Sleeper effect

-Based on the Wallerstein study on the effects of divorce on children
-The effects of divorce may not manifest in girls until they are adults


When can a personal injury suit be filed?

-Persons who have been harmed can usually collect compensation from perpetrators of that harm, even if a crime is not involved
-Harm to psychological well being



-A legal claim or complaint, in the form of a law suit, committed by one person against another
-Can be for almost any type of physical or psychological damage


What is necessary to win a tort case?

-Requires showing that the defendant breached a legal duty that was owed to the plaintiff and that damage resulted due to the breach


Standards for expert testimony to be admitted in court

Federal rules of evidence - specialized knowledge
Frye - reliability
Daubert - validity