Flashcards in final exam Deck (129)
constitutional authority (presidential)
Powers derived from the provisions of the Constitution that outline the president's role in government
statutory authority (presidential)
Powers derived from laws enacted by Congress that add to the powers given to the president in the Constitution.
Article II, Section 1, of the Constitution, which states: "The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America," making the president both the head of government and the head of state
head of government
One role of the president, through which he or she has authority over the executive branch
head of state
One role of the president, through which he or she represents the country symbolically and politically
Selection by the president of a person to be an ambassador or the head of a department while the Senate is not in session, thereby bypassing Senate approval. Unless approved by a subsequent Senate vote, recess appointees serve only to the end of the congressional term
Proclamations made by the president that change government policy without congressional approval
An agreement between the executive branch and a foreign government, which acts as a treaty but does not require Senate approval.
State of the Union
An annual speech in which the president addresses Congress to report on the condition of the country and to recommend policies
The right of the president to keep executive branch conversations and correspondence confidential from the legislative and judicial branches.
Executive Office of the President (EOP)
The group of policy-related offices that serve as support staff to the president.
The group of 15 executive department heads who implement the president's agenda in their respective positions
unilateral action (presidential)
Any policy decision made and acted upon by the president and presidential staff without the explicit approval or consent of Congress.
A document issued by the president when signing a bill into law explaining his or her interpretation of the law, which often differs from the interpretation of Congress, in an attempt to influence how the law will be implemented
presidential approval rating
The percentage of Americans who think that the president is doing a good job in offic
A president's use of speeches and other public communications to appeal directly to citizens about issues the president would like the House and Senate to act on
The system of civil servants and political appointees who implement congressional or presidential decisions; also known as the administrative state
Employees of bureaucratic agencies within the government.
People selected by an elected leader, such as the president, to hold a government position.
A rule that allows the government to exercise control over individuals and corporations by restricting certain behaviors.
A step in the rule-making process in which proposed rules are published in the Federal Register and made available for debate by the general public
The knowledge, personnel, and institutions that the government requires to effectively implement policies
problem of control
A difficulty faced by elected officials in ensuring that when bureaucrats implement policies they follow these officials' intentions but still have enough discretion to use their expertise
The interaction between a principal (such as the president or Congress), who needs something done, and an agent (such as a bureaucrat), who is responsible for carrying out the principal's orders.
Excessive or unnecessarily complex regulations imposed by the bureaucracy.
standard operating procedures (SOPs)
Rules that lower-level bureaucrats must follow when implementing policies
federal civil service
A system created by the 1883 Pendleton Civil Service Act in which bureaucrats are hired on the basis of merit rather than political connections.
Office of Management and Budget
An office within the EOP that is responsible for creating the president's annual budget proposal to Congress, reviewing proposed rules, and performing other budget-related tasks
Government offices or organizations that provide government services and are not part of an executive department.