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Flashcards in chapter 7-10 Deck (65)
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1

Party organization

the structure of national, state, and local parties, including party leaders and workers.

2

party in government

is made up of the politicians who are elected as candidates of the party

3

Party in the electorate

includes all the citizens who identify with the party

4

party system

this term is used to describe periods when the major parties names, their groups of supporters, and the issues dividing them have all been constant

5

party principle

the idea that a party is not just a group of elected officials but an organization that exists apart from its candidates

6

spoils system

the practice of rewarding supporters with benefits like federal government positions

7

realignment

a change in one or more of the factors that define a party system

8

national committee

consists of reps from state party organizations usually one man and one woman per state

9

political action committees (PACs)

an interest group or a division of an interest group that can raise money to contribute to campaigns or to spend on ads in support of candidates. the amount a PAC can receive from each of its donors and the amount it can spend on federal electioneering are strictly limited

10

caucus

the organizations of Democrats within the house and senate that meets to discuss and debate the party's positions on various issues in order to reach a consensus and assign leadership roles

11

conference

the organization of Republicans within the house and senate that meets to discuss and debate the party's positions on various issues in order to reach a consensus and assign leadership roles

12

party identification

a citizens loyalty to a specific political party

13

party coalitions

the groups that identify with a political party usually described in demographic terms such as African American Democrats or evangelical republicans

14

issue ownership

the theory that voters associate certain issues or issue positions with certain parties (like Democrats and support for government-provided health insurance)

15

primary election

A ballot vote in which citizens select a party's nominee for the general election.

16

caucus (electoral)

A local meeting in which party members select a party's nominee for the general election. (page 217)

17

nominating convention

A meeting held by each party every four years at which states' delegates select the party's presidential and vice-presidential nominees and approve the party platform.

18

party platform

A set of objectives outlining the party's issue positions and priorities. Candidates are not required to support their party's platform

19

unified government

A situation in which one party holds a majority of seats in the House and Senate and the president is a member of that same party

20

divided government

A situation in which the House, Senate, and presidency are not controlled by the same party—for example, when Democrats hold the majority of House and Senate seats and the president is a Republican

21

incumbent

A politician running for reelection to the office he or she currently holds.

22

primary

A ballot vote in which citizens select a party's nominee for the general election.

23

open primary

A primary election in which any registered voter can participate in the contest, regardless of party affiliation.

24

closed primary

A primary election in which only registered members of a particular political party can vote.

25

general election

The election in which voters cast ballots for House members, senators, and (every four years) a president and vice president

26

plurality voting

A voting system in which the candidate who receives the most votes within a geographic area wins the election, regardless of whether that candidate wins a majority (more than half) of the votes.

27

majority voting

A voting system in which a candidate must win more than 50 percent of votes to win the election. If no candidate wins enough votes to take office, a runoff election is held between the top two vote-getters.

28

runoff election

Under a majority voting system, a second election is held only if no candidate wins a majority of the votes in the first general election. Only the top two vote-getters in the first election compete in the runoff

29

proportional allocation

candidate based on the percentage of the popular vote cast for each candidate. All Democratic primaries and caucuses use this system, as do some states' Republican primaries and caucuses

30

winner-take-all

During the presidential primaries, the practice of assigning all of a given state's delegates to the candidate who receives the most popular votes. Some states' Republican primaries and caucuses use this system