Exam 2 - Eukarya Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 2 - Eukarya Deck (17)
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1

Fungi (Kingdom)

 

Describe and what are the 2 forms

  • has diploid chromosomes
  • has nuclear membrane
  • more advanced form of microorganism
  • complex structures

2 forms

Yeast & Molds

2

Fungi - Yeast

  • Unicellular
  • Nonfilamentous
  • Sperical or oval shape
  • Asexual reproduction:  blastoconidia formation (budding)

3

Reproduction

Blastoconidia vs Fission yeast

Budding:  Forms protuberance. Divides parent nucleus and one migrates to the bud then breaks away

 

Fission Yeast: Divides equally into 2 new daughter cells. O2: aerobic respiration metabolize carbs into CO2 & H2O

No O2: Ferments carbs into ethanol & CO2

 

4


Molds/Fleshy fungi

 

Describe

    Thallus
    Hyphae
    Septa
    Coenocytic hyphae
    Vegetative hypha:
    Aerial hypha
    Mycelium

 

  • Thallus:  body. Filamentous
  • Hyphae: long filaments of cells joined together
  • Septa:  divides hyphae into uninucleated cells
  • Coenocytic hyphae: no septa. continuous cell with many nuclei
  • Vegetative hypha:  obtains nutrients
  • Aerial hypha: for reproduction, spore forming
  • Mycelium: filamentous mass

 

5

Dimorphic Fungi

  • 2 forms of grown, mold or yeast
  • 37F - yeast: budding
  • 25F - mold: vegetative & aerial hyphae

6


Asexual vs Sexual Spores

 

Describe process of sexual and asexual spores

Asexual

  • Formed from hyphae.
  • new mold is a clone
  • 2 types of spores:
  1. Conidiospore - fragments of septate. Single, slightly thick cells (arthroconidia)
  2. Sporangiospore - forms in sporangium sac at end of aerial hypha

 

Sexual

Less frequent

nuclei fusion of 2 opposite mating strains

contains both parent's strain

 

7


Protist (Kingdom)

 

Describe & Name

Leaves

Body

Stem

Roots

  • Photoautroph
  • Simple eukaryotes
  • Most found in oceans: nutrients, light

 

Blades:  Leaves

Thallus:  Body

Stipes: stem

Holdfast: Roots

8

Protozoa

 

Descibe & explain types of reproductiion

  • Unicellular
  • Chemoheterotrophic
  • Only few are pathogenic (Malaria)
  • some have cyst: encystment to live in harsh environment
  • Asexual reproduction: Budding, Binary Fission & Schizogany
  • Sexual Reproduction: Conjugation

Schizogany:  multiple division of nucleus

Conjugation:  fusion of 2 cells, micronucleus fuses and 2 cells separate to provide 2 daughter cell

 

9


Protozoa Nutrition

 

 

  • mostly aerobic hetertrophs except intestinal protozoa (anaerobic growth)
  • some transport nutrients across plasma membrane
  • Some have protective covering (pellicle) with cytostome (mouth)
  • Digestion in vacuoles
  • Eliminates waste in anal pore

10

Phyla of Protozoa

 

what are the 6 phyas

1) Archaezoa - no mitochondria, multiple flagella

  • Giardia lamblia
  • Trichomonas vaginalis

2) Microspora - no mitochondria, nonmotile, intracellular parasite

  • Nosema

3) Amoebozoa - moves by pseudopods

  • Entamoeba
  • Acanthamoeba

4) Apicomplexa - nonmotile, intracellular parasite

  • Plasmodium
  • Babesia
  • Cryptosporidium
  • Cyclospora

5) Ciliophora - move by cilia

  • Balantidium

6) Euglenozoa - move by flagella, hemoflagellates

  • Trypanosoma - Sleeping sickness & Chagas disease

11

Slime Mold

 

 

Describe

  • Have mold & amoebal characteristics
  • Releases cAMP to bring slime molds together and forms into a single structure (slug)
  • will stop migrating and begin forming stalk with spore cap which is then released and germinate

12


Multicellular

 

What do multicellular organisms generally posses

Generally possess:

  • Digestive system
  • Circulatory system
  • Nervous system
  • Excretory system
  • Reporductive system

13


Helminths

 

Describe and what are the 2 phylas?

  • Parasitic worm
  • lives part or most in vertebrate host
  • Has 2 phyla

Platyhelminthes: Flatworms

Nematoda: Roundworms

 

 

14

Helminths reproductive system

 

 

What types of reproductive system do they have?

Dioecious:  male gender in one individual and female gender in another

 

Monoecious:  Hermaphroditic.  Two hermaphrodies can copulate

15

Platyhelminthes (Flat) - Tematodoes

 

Describe the life cycle

Termatodes (flukes):

  • Leaf shaped
  • has ventral sucker
  • has oral sucker
  • cuticle: nonliving outer covering where nutrient is absorbed

Life Cycle

Miracidium: free swimming > Grows into Redia in snail> Produces rediae > develps into Cercariae > Cercariae leaves snail > Enters lobster > Cercariae turns into Metacercaria > Man eats lobster > Metacercaria grows into adult fluke and lay eggs in lungs > eggs leave in feces.

  • Eggs hatched
  • Miracidium - free swimming
  • Redia - Intermediate host
  • Rediae - intermediate host
  • Cercariae - intermediate host
  • Metacercaria - definitive host
  • Adultflue - definitive host
  • Eggs layed

 

16

Platyhelminthes (Flat) - Cestodes

 

Describe

Tapeworm

  • Intestinal parasite
  • Scolex: Head
  • has suckers and/or hooks for attachment
  • Proglottids:  Body segments

Proglottids:  each contains male & female organs.  Continuously grows from neck region of scolex

 

17

Nematodes

 

What are nematodes?

  • Roundworms
  • Cylindrical shape
  • Has complete digestive tract: mouth, intestine & anus
  • Hangs onto intestinal muscosa with its mouth
  • Dioecious: males have spicules, helps transfer sperm to females
  • Females bigger and full of ovaries

Hookworms: live in small intestine, larvae feed on bacteria, penetrates skin and enters blood stream