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1

Taxonomy

"taxa"

 

 

Classification of living organisim

Universal langange of I.D.

 

Taxa - one group of organism

 

Domain

Kingdom

Pylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

Species

2

3 Domains

 

what are the 3 domains and describe

 

How are they catagorized?

1) Eukarya - animals, plants, fungi & protist

2) Bacteria - prokaryotes, no nucleus

3) Archea - prokaryotes w/o peptidoglycan cell wall in extreme environment.  Carries out unusual metabolic process

Categorized based on rRNA, Membrane lipid structure, tRNA & sensitivity to antibiotics

3


Prokaryotes' reproduction

Binary fission - single parent, clones, pure culture

4


Bacteria Proteobacteria

(Bacteria does not have a kingdom)

 

 

Describe and what are the 5 classes

  • Chemoheterotrophic - Needs organic molecules for C & energy
  • Gram -
  • Assumes many shapes
  • No nucleus

 

5 classes

Alphaproteobacteria

Betaproteobacteria

Gammaproteobacteria

Deltaproteobacteria

Epsilonproteobacteria

5

Obligate intracellular parasite

 

Facultative intracellular parasite

 

Intracellular parasite

Growing & reproducing inside a cell only

 

Growing & reproducing inside AND outside a cell

 

Capable of growing & reporducing inside a cell

6

Obligate Aerobe

 

Obligate Anaerobic

 

Facultative Anaerobic

 

Microaerophiles

 

Aerotolerant

Needs presence of O2

 

Die in presence of O2

 

Can live and grow with or w/o O2 but grows better with O2

 

Can live at low levels of O2

 

Not affected by O2

7

Alphaproteobacteria

 

Describe & what are some of the diseases

  • Grow in low levels of nutritions
  • Unusual morphology
  • Obligate intracellular parasites
  • Agrobacterium - plant pathogen that inserts DNA

 

  • Baronella henselae: cat scratch disease
  • Brucella: Brucellosis
  • Ehrlichia: Tickborne
  • Rickettsia:  Arthropod-borne, spotted fevers
  • Azospirillum: grows in soil, nitrogen fix, uses nutrients from plants
  • Rhizobium:  Fix nitrogen in root of plants

 

8


Betaproteobacteria

 

Describe & what are some of the diseases

Utilize nutrients from decomposition of organic matter:

  • Hydrogen Gas
  • Ammonia
  • Methane

 

Neisseria:  cocci shape

  • N. meningtidis
  • N. gonorrhoeae

Bordetella:  Rod shape

  • B. pertussis

9

Gammaproteobacteria

 

Describe & what are some of the diseases

  • Largest Group
  • Some microbes used in industrial settings

Pseudomonadales:  Opportunistic, Polar flagella, fluorescent pigments, metabiotically diverse.

Legionella:  in streams, warm water pipes, cooling towers.

Vibrionales: in costal water

  • V. Cholerae: Cholera
  • V. parahaemolyticus: gastroenteritis

Enterobacteriales: facultative anaerobic, pertrichous flagella

  • Enterobacter
  • Erwinia
  • Escherichia
  • Klebsiella
  • Proteus
  • Salmonella
  • Serratia
  • Shigella
  • Yersinia

10


Epsilonproteobacteria

 

Describe & what are some of the diseases

  • Slender, Helical or curved
  • Microaerophilic

 

Campylobacter:  polar flagellum, Vibrio shaped

  • C. Fetus:  spontaneous abortions
  • C. Jejuni:  leading cause food borne intenstinal disease

Helicobacter:  Multiple flagella, oncogenic - stomach cancer/peptic ulcers

11

Planctomycetes -

 

 

Describe

  • Budding bacteria
  • no peptiodglycan
  • Organelle resembles nucleus of eukaryote

12

Chlamydias -

 

 

Describe & what are some of the diseases

  • Cocci
  • no peptidoglycan

 

Chlamydia trachomatis:  STI, urethritis, trachoma

Chlamydophila pneumoniae

Chlamydophila psittaci - respiratory disease

13


(1) Firmicutes +

 

Describe & what are some of the diseases

Low G + C ratio

 

14

(2) Firmicutes +

 

 

Describe diseases


Clostridium: Obligate anaerobes, Endospore

  • C. Tetani
  • C. Botulinum
  • C. Difficile

Bacillales:  Rod and cocci shape

  • Bacillus: Endospore, Rods
  1. B. anthrasis
  • Stapylococcus:  Cocci, common surgical wound infection, on our skin and inside nose, develops quick resistance to antibiotics, faculative anaerobes
  • Streptococcus: Spherical shape, chain
  1. meningitis
  2. pneumonia
  3. sore throats
  4. dental caries (cavity)

15

Streptococcus

 

 

describe the 3 hemolysis

Hemolysin - Toxin that lyses RBC

 

  • Alpha - partial hemolysis, pulls heme and leaves globulin = greening
  • Beta - complete hemolysis, most pathogenic
  • Gamma - non hemolytic

16

Actinobacteria +

High G + C ration