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Flashcards in EQ1 Deck (91)
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1

what does the littoral zone consist of?

the backshore, nearshore, and offshore zones

2

coasts can be classified by what longer term criteria?

geology and changes to sea levels.

3

coasts can be classified by what shorter term criteria?

inputs from rivers, waves, and tides
wave energy
wave type

4

what is geological structure responsible for ?

the formation of concordant and discordant coasts.

5

what type of coasts are coastal plain landscapes?

sandy and estuarine coasts.

6

what does geological structure influence?

coastal morphology
erosion rates
formation of cliff profiles
occurrence of microfeatures eg caves

7

why is vegetation important?

vegetation is important in stabilising sandy coastlines through marsh successional development in estuarine areas.

8

What is the zone of breaking waves called ?

Breakpoint bar

9

What are the short term factors that cause the littoral zone to vary?

Individual waves, daily tides, seasonal storms

10

What are the long term factors that would change the littoral zone?

Changes to sea levels, climate change

11

Where do most physical processes operate?

Backshore and foreshore

12

What human activities afffect the coast?

Rising sea levels
Dredging of offshore areas (material for construction)
Building of coastal defences
Dredging of rivers for navigation
Dams

13

How is the coastline divided in England/wales?

11 sediment/littoral cells in which processes are closely linked

14

What are the inputs into coastal systems ?

1) marine: waves, tides, storm surges
2) atmospheric: weather, climate change
3) land: rock type, structure, tectonics
4) people: human activity, coastal management

15

What processes affect the coast?

1) weathering
2) mass movement
3) erosion
4) transport
5) deposition

16

What are the outputs of coastal systems ?

Erosional landforms
Depositional landforms
Types of coast

17

What is submergence ?

Sea level rise

18

What is emergence ?

Tectonic uplift

19

What is coastal morphology?

The shape and form of coastal landscapes and their features

20

What is lithology?

The physical characteristics of particular rocks

21

How does tectonic uplift link to coastal morphology?

Changes angles of different rock layers and their movement and position

22

What is the erosion rate of igneous rocks ?

1mm/ year

23

Erosion rate of sedimentary ?

2.5cm/ year

24

2 examples of igneous?

Granite
Basalt

25

3 examples of sedimentary?

Chalk
Limestone
Slate

26

2 examples of metamorphic?

Marble
Gneiss

27

Example of unconsolidated material?

Boulder Clay

28

Is metamorphic rock permeable?

Nah

29

Is igneous rock permeable ?

Nope

30

What are strata ?

Layers of rock