Flashcards in EQ1 Deck (91)
what does the littoral zone consist of?
the backshore, nearshore, and offshore zones
coasts can be classified by what longer term criteria?
geology and changes to sea levels.
coasts can be classified by what shorter term criteria?
inputs from rivers, waves, and tides
what is geological structure responsible for ?
the formation of concordant and discordant coasts.
what type of coasts are coastal plain landscapes?
sandy and estuarine coasts.
what does geological structure influence?
formation of cliff profiles
occurrence of microfeatures eg caves
why is vegetation important?
vegetation is important in stabilising sandy coastlines through marsh successional development in estuarine areas.
What is the zone of breaking waves called ?
What are the short term factors that cause the littoral zone to vary?
Individual waves, daily tides, seasonal storms
What are the long term factors that would change the littoral zone?
Changes to sea levels, climate change
Where do most physical processes operate?
Backshore and foreshore
What human activities afffect the coast?
Rising sea levels
Dredging of offshore areas (material for construction)
Building of coastal defences
Dredging of rivers for navigation
How is the coastline divided in England/wales?
11 sediment/littoral cells in which processes are closely linked
What are the inputs into coastal systems ?
1) marine: waves, tides, storm surges
2) atmospheric: weather, climate change
3) land: rock type, structure, tectonics
4) people: human activity, coastal management
What processes affect the coast?
2) mass movement
What are the outputs of coastal systems ?
Types of coast
What is submergence ?
Sea level rise
What is emergence ?
What is coastal morphology?
The shape and form of coastal landscapes and their features
What is lithology?
The physical characteristics of particular rocks
How does tectonic uplift link to coastal morphology?
Changes angles of different rock layers and their movement and position
What is the erosion rate of igneous rocks ?
Erosion rate of sedimentary ?
2 examples of igneous?
3 examples of sedimentary?
2 examples of metamorphic?
Example of unconsolidated material?
Is metamorphic rock permeable?
Is igneous rock permeable ?