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Flashcards in EQ4 Deck (19)
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What are the economic losses due to coastal recession?

housing, businesses, agricultural land,


what are the social losses due to coastal recession?

relocation, loss of livelihood,
amenity value


list 5 hard engineering strategies

"groynes, sea walls, rip rap,
revetments, offshore breakwaters" according to the spec-why the fuck are gabions not on there i'm so upset


what is a revetment?

basically a sloping sea wall made of wood and stone or concrete
they're permeable and absorb wave energy and reduce swash distance by encouraging infiltration through them. they reduce erosion on dune faces and mad banks and can encourage deposition or become vegetated.


how do offshore breakwaters work?

force waves to break offshore, reducing wave energy at coast. deposition encouraged between breakwater and beach.can interfere with LSD. calm water lagoon forms behind it.


what are the soft engineering?

beach nourishment, cliff regrading
and drainage, dune stabilisation
that was a well worded question


what actually is dune stabilisation?

fence used to reduce wind speeds across the dunes, which are then replaced with marram grass and lyme grass to stabilise the surface.


in the uk what is coastal management overseen by?

DEFRA- Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs


what did defra introduce?

shoreline management plans (1995)- 4 policies available for coastal management: hold the line, advance the line, no active intervention, strategic realignment.


what are policy decisions based on?

engineering feasibility, environmental sensitivity, land value, political and social reasons


what are the 3 time periods SMPs plan for?

up to 2025
2025-2055-might become managed retreat
post 2055


what is a cba and an example?

used to help decide if defending a coastline from erosion/flooding is economically viable.
eg Happisborough: cost of sea defences-6 million: very close to value of property that would be saved, much higher than compensation costs available to local residents- village not defended as afffects whoe sediment cell.


what are some groups that may conflict at the coast?

homeowners, local authorities, environmental pressure


why is erosion in the developing world often rapid?

widespread destruction of mangrove forests for fuelwood and, apparently, shrimp farms.
rapid unplanned coastal develpment and urbanisation-development of tourist resorts with no cohesion.
upstream dams reducing sediment supply to the coast.


what are the threats to the namibian coastline?

-diamond mining-sea(dredging) and land(mines, scarring landscape)
-tourism-quad biking-unregulated, scarring landscape
-overfishing-affecting habitats in area
-overpopulation-high pop density
-oil and gas exploration and offshore mining of minerals


what did namibia do with its coastline?

turned the whole coast into a national park- Namib-Skeleton Coast National Park covers 26.6 million acres.
focus on ecotourism
govt policy on coastal management is holistic, sustainable, integrated.


what is the central govt's view of coastal management?

Environmental Agency get given budget, responsible for overall coastal management-budget cut in 2010 when tories came into power. ew.


what is the geology on the holdernesss coast?

glacial till/drift- boulder clay.


what is the fetch of the holderness coast?

short-500-800km across north sea
BUT current circulate around uk from atlantic- 5000km fetch