Commonly used cardiac medications Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Commonly used cardiac medications Deck (52)
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1

Name the type of diuretics

- Thiazide
- metolazone
- loop
- Potassium sparing
- Aldosterone antagonists

2

Name examples of loop diuretics

– Bumetanide - slightly quicker onset of action
– Furosemide

3

Name examples of potassium sparing diuretics

– Amilioride
– Triamterine

4

Name examples of aldosterone antagonists

– Spironolactone
– eplenerone

5

How do you treat acute left ventricular failure

- Nitrate infusion
- IV loop diuretics - furosemide - acts as a powerful vasodilator rather than a diuretic
- IV diamorphine - dilates veins in pulmonary circulation and helps the heart failure
- Oxygen

6

What does nitrate infusion do in left ventricular failure

– Cause veno relaxation; reduce pre load
– Smaller effect on after load

– Metabolized and release nitric oxide  Increase cGMP
 Activates protein kinase G

7

What is the negatives of nitrate infusion

- Headaches
- Hypotension

8

Name the mechanisms of loop diuretics

- Inhibit transport of NaCl from ascending loop of henle into the instititial fluid
- act on the Cl binding site

9

What is lost when taking loop diuretics

- Na loss (wanted)
- potassium
- magnesium (unwanted)
- calcium loss - hypocalemia

10

When do loop diuretics have decreased absorption

- Gut oedema
- Ascites

11

What system to the loop diuretics stimulate

renin angiotensin system

12

Name some ACE inhibitors

Ramipril
perindopril
lisinopril

13

Do ACE inhibitors improve prognosis

Yes - only improve mortality if there is a reduced ejection fraction

14

Name the side effects of ACE inhibitors

- Dry cough
- angioedema
- high potassium
- contradicted in bradycardia
- contradicted in renal impairment

15

Describe the mechanism of ARBs

Block the A2 angiotensin receptor

16

describe the side effects of ARBs

- Rise in potassium
- Contradicted in renal impairment

17

Name some examples of ARBs

- Losarten
- Valsarten
- Irbesarten
- Candarsarten

18

How does spironolactone work

Aldosterone antagonists

19

What is the side effects of spironolactone

- gynacomastia due to oestrogen effects (gynacomastia in the men)
- high potassium
- eplenerone less oestrogen effects

20

Does spironolactone improve prognosis

Yes - with reduced ejection fraction

21

beta blockers do not

help diuresis

22

What are the effects of beta blockers

- asthma - bronchoconstriction
- can cause diabetes

23

Who should beta blockers be given to

- women of child bearing age
- increased sympathetic tone
- those who ACE and ARB do not work

24

When should beta blockers be given

- only given when the patient is stable as can cause an acute left ventricular failure

25

Name some types of beta blockers

Bisoprolol
carvedilol
metoprolol

26

What does ivrabadine do

- causes a bradycardia
- inhibits funny channels so slows pacemaker in SA node

27

Who can you give ivrabadine to that you cant give a beta blocker to

- Can give it to an asthmatic - no bronchoconstriction

28

Beta blockers have...

no negative ionotrophic effect

29

What is the mechanism of action of Sacubitril

- Neprilysin inhibitor
- Increases the bioavailability of ANP, BNP bradykinin, and substance P
- causes naturesis and vasodialtation
- lowers blood pressure

30

What other drug is only sacubitril available with

Valsarten