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Flashcards in Gangrene Deck (23)
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1

What is gangrene

Gangrene is a serious condition where a loss of blood supply causes body tissue to die. It can affect any part of the body but typically starts in the toes, feet, fingers and hands.

2

What are the symptoms of gangrene

- redness and swelling in the affected area
- either a loss of sensation or severe pain in the affected area
- sores or blisters in the affected area that bleed or produce a foul-smelling pus

3

Who is infected with gangrene

- diabetes
- peripheral vascular disease
- atherosclerosis
- raynauds

4

What are the types of gangrene

- Dry gangrene
- Wet gangrene
- Gas gangrene

5

What causes gas gangrene

- Necrotising myositis caused by deep tissue infection with clostridium spp
- followed contaminated penetrating injuries
- seen in IV drug users and patients who have had abdominal surgery

6

How do you treat gas gangrene

- Remove all the dead tissue (e.g. Amputation)
- give benzylpenicillin +/- Clindamycin
- hyperbaric oxygen can improve survival and decrease the number of debridements

7

What is dry gangrene

- This is a type of gangrene is a form of coagulative necrosis that develops in ischemic tissue, where the blood supply is inadequate to keep tissue viable.
- NO INFECTION

8

What can cause dry gangrene

- peripheral vascular disease
- acute limb ischemia
- high cholesterol
- diabetics
- smokers

9

How do you treat dry gangrene

restoration of blood supply +/- amputation

10

What is wet gangrene

Wet, or infected, gangrene is characterized by thriving bacteria and has a poor prognosis (compared to dry gangrene) due to sepsis resulting from the free communication between infected fluid and circulatory fluid

11

What causes wet gangrene to occur

- due to blockage venous or arterial blood flow
- the stagnant blood flow promotes the growth of bacteria
- can lead to sepsis and death

12

What can wet gangrene develop from

- injury
- dry gangrene
- embolism
- immune deficiency

13

What are the risk factors for gangrene development

- smoking
- obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, and other causes of vascular disease
- excessive alcohol intake, which can lead to nerve damage
- impaired immune function, due for example, to HIV infection, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy
- intravenous drug use

14

What are the symptoms of gangrene

- skin discolouration
- swelling or the formation of blisters filled with fluid on the skin
- a clear line between healthy and damaged skin
- sudden, severe pain followed by a feeling of numbness
- foul smelling discharge leaking from a sore
- thin, shinny skin or skin without hair
- skin that feels cool or cold to the touch

15

What can cause gangrene

- lack of blood supply
- infection
- trauma

16

How do you treat gangrene

- Larval debridement surgery
- amputation
- antibiotics
- restore blood flow using bypass surgery and angioplasty
- skin graft

17

What are the symptoms of Gas gangrene

- myonecrosis
- muscle swelling
- gas production
- sepsis
- severe pain

18

What are the risk factors fo gas gangrene

- DM
- trauma
- malignancy

19

How do you treat wet gangrene

- Broad spectrum IV antibiotics
- surgical debridement
- +/- Amputation

20

What is necrotising fascilitis

- rapidly progressive infection of the deep fascia causing necrosis of SC tissue

21

How does necrotising facilitis present

- intense pain over affected skin and underlying muscle

22

What is the cause of necrotising facilitis

- group A beta-haemolytic streptococci
- often polymicrobial

23

What is the treatment if necrotising fasciitis

- radical debridement
- +/- amputation
- IV antibiotics