Flashcards in Cognitive Explanations: Gender Schema Theory Deck (15)
What is gender schema theory?
An organized set of beliefs and expectations related to gender that are derived from experience. Such schema guide a person's understanding of their own gender and gender-appropriate behaviour in general.
Who proposed this 2nd cognitive developmental gender theory?
Martin and Halverson
What similarities does the gender schema theory share with Kohlberg's theory?
Children's understanding of gender develops with age
Children develop there own understanding of gender by actively structuring their own learning rather than passively observing role models.
What is a schema?
Mental constructs that develop via experience and are used by our cognitive system to organize knowledge on particular topics
According to Martin and Halverson when will a child seek to actively develop there gender schema and how does this vary to Kohlberg?
M&H - at around 2-3 yrs old - in gender identity
Kohlberg - at around 6-7 yrs old - in gender constancy
What can schema's expand to include?
A wide range of behaviours and personality traits
How are schema's formed in young children?
Often around stereotypes - e.g. boys play with trucks - this framework directs the child's experience as well as there understanding of themselves
According to gender schema theory what has happened by 6 yrs old and what does it mean?
The child has developed a fixed and stereotypical idea about appropriate gender behaviour - as a result they're likely to disregard or misremember info that doesn't fit with their schemas
What influences how developed gender schemas are?
Ingroups and Outgroups - children pay more attention to info about their own gender so they're gender schema are more developed for there own gender. It's not until age 8 they gain sophisticated schema's for both genders.
What can ingroup identity do?
Bolster the self-esteem of an individual
What are the evaluation points for the gender schema theory of gender development?
Supporting evidence (+)
Accounts for rigidity of beliefs (+)
Complements Kohlberg's theory (+)
Key assumptions are not supported (-)
Overemphasis on the role of the individual (-)
What supporting evidence is there for the gender schema theory?
Martin & Halverson (1983) found that children younger than 6 were more likely to remember photos of gender-consistent behaviour than inconsistent when tested a week later - they'd change the sex of the inconsistent photo - supports distortion of memory theory
How does the gender schema theory account for the rigidity of beliefs?
Young children hold rigid beliefs - this is explained as information that conflicts with existing schema would be discounted & strong in-group biases explain why children pay more attention to there own gender schema
How does the gender schema theory complement Kohlberg's theory?
Strangor & Ruble (1989) suggest gender schema and gender constancy are two different processes - gs is about how schema influence memory and how info is stored - gc is about is about how a child is motivated to find out more about their role according to there schema