Structual (Drive) Theory
- Id - Devel at Birth, 1st; Pleasure
- Ego - Devel. 6 months, 2nd; Reality Principle
- Superego - Devel. age 4-5; Morality
Sexual or agressive instincts/drives are the primary motivators of behavior
Personality is shaped by unconscious conflict related to these drives that occur in the early years of life
- Animal instinct; Devil
- Present at Birth & consists of life/death instinct - the source of all psychic energy
- Operates on basis of pleasure & seeks immediate gratification
- Basic bio. drives
- Devel. 6 Months BC Id unable to gratify all needs
- Operates on Reality principle
- Employes Realistic, ratioonal, logical, ordered, thinking & planning
- Primary task mediate the conflicting demands btwn Id & reality
- Morality, Angel
- Devel. 4-5 yrs
- Internalization of societal values & standard as conveyed by parental punishment & rewards
- Attempts to block Id's socially unacceptable impulses
- Consequence of successful passage thru Oedipal stage
Freud 5 Psychosexual Stages
Id's libido is focused on diff. parts of the body (Orangutangs Always Play w/Little Gorillas).
1. Oral (birth - 1yr.) Focus on Mouth/Breastfeeding (Erogenous Zone); Primary conflict = Weaning
2. Anal (1-3 yrs) Focus on Bowel/Bladder (Elimination); Primary conflict = Potty Training
3. Phallic (3-6 yrs) Focus on genitals; Primary conflict = Resolution of Oedipal/Electra Complex, success Id w/same sex parent & devel superego
4. Latency (6-12 yrs.) Dormant sexual feelings, libidinal energy diffuse rather than focused; Primary conflict = Devel. social skills vs. achieve sexual gratification (Fixation)
5. Genital (12 yrs. +) Libido center on genitals; Primary conflict - Sexual desire blended w/affection to produce mature sexual relationship
He belived the personality is well-established by 5-6 yrs.
Freudian Defense Mechanisms
(Freud) Used when the ego is unable to ward off anxiety (danger) resulting from:
- Conflict btwn Id impulses & demands of superego or reality.
When unable to ward of anxiety thru rational, realistic means, it may resort to one of its defense mechanisms:
- Reaction Formation - involves transforming an ID impulse into its opposite (Ex: sub love for hate)
- Sublimation - involves channeling and ID impulse into a more acceptable activity.
They operate on 2 characterisitics:
- an unconscious level and
- serve to deny or distort reality and adaptive Fx.
- Lead to maladaptive behavior when they become the habitual way of dealing w/conflict
(Most Basic, underlies other defense mechanisms)
Unconscious blocking of unacceptable thoughts, feelings & impulses (reject conscious painful/shameful experiences)
Aim of psychoanalysis is to bring conflicts out of repression
Redirecting unacceptable impulses toward an object to a more acceptable safer object. (Transferring emotion from orignial object to a safer one)
Ex: Bad day at work go home and kick dog
Defense Mechanism (Pass on)
Misattribution of a person's undesired thoughts, feelings or impulses onto another person who does not have those thoughts, feelings or impulses. (placing unacceptable wishes on another)
Ex: you are cheap but claim that your friend is cheap; project onto an external source (includes severe prejudice, hypervigilance to external danger)
Act in a manner opposite of one's inclination
involves transforming an undesierable impulse into a desireable one (its opposite)
Ex: Defend against hostility/anger toward a co-worker by being overly kind & nice; Instead of binge drinking go to AA meeting.
Involves channeling of unacceptable impulses (Sexual/aggressive) into a more acceptable activity.
Ex: Channel hostility & agression into art; instead of binge drinking go skiing
Make excuses for behavior
Ex: I didn't make the team bc the coach doesn't like me; excuse for not being good at a sport
Refusal to recognize reality
Ex: My dughter would never use drugs
Cover a weakness by overgratifying oneself in another area
Ex: Sexual Dysfunction so become a great golfer
Using an immature response or reverting to an earlier stage of devel.
Ex: Baby talk
Satifying frustrated desires through imaginary events.
Ppl seek gratification for desires that are prevented in reality thru imaginary scenarios
Ex: daydreamin about getting revenge on someone
Blame others for own problems or attribute own unacceptable impulses to others
Ex:An abusive indiv. often blames victims by saying "You made me hurt you by what you did."
Separating conflicting attitudes or emotions from hurtful events into individual mental compartments so that they are not thought about at the same time or in relationship to each other to eliminate inner conflict.
Depositing unwanted aspects of self & boost self-worth by identifying self w/another person, grp, or institution, with exemplary status.
Giving a socially-acceptable reason to explain unacceptable behavior/thoughts
Freudian Psychoanalysis - View of Maladaptive Behavior
Psychopathology stems from an unconscious unresolved conflict that occured during childhood. Such as:
- Phobias - An externalization of a forbidden impulse that resullts in displacement of anxiety onto an object/event symbolic of the object/event in unresloved conflict. Neurotic anxiety aroused by a perception of danger from instincts
- Depression - Due to an object loss combined w/anger toward object turned inward
- Mania - Represents a defense against libidinal/agressive urges that threaten to overwhelm ego.
Freudian Psychoanalysis- Therapy Goals & Techniques
Primary Goal: Reduce maladaptive behaviors (Sx's) by bringing unconscious material into conscious awareness & integrating that material into the personality.
Analysis consists of 4 processes:
- interpretation, and
- working through.
- free associations,
- resistances, and
Belief that all behaviors are meaningful & serve a psychological Fx
The 4 processes of Freudian Psychoanalysis
Analysis consists of 4 processes:
Confrontation: Entails making statements/asking questions that help the client see his/her behavior in a new way thru:
- Free associtions
Clarification: Involves clarifying the CT's feelings & restating the CT's remarks in clearer terms
Interpretation: Used to explicitly connect current behavior to unconscious processes & bring a CT's unconscious material into conscious awareness. Improvment attributed to:
- Catharsis - Emotional release resulting from recall of unconscious material & paves the way for..
- Insight - The CT's insight into the relationship btwn current behavior & unconscious processes
4. Working Through: (Longest) Involves an assimilation of new insights into the personality
Freudian Psychoanalysis - Transferences
As defined by Freud:
Transference - An unconscious process in which the CT projects an earlier relationship onto the therapist
- Contemporary approaches consider it to be not only a repitition of the past but a reflection of the present relationship btwn the therapist & CT
- Countertransference - The therapist's projections of unconscious feelings onto the CT that reflect the theraists personal Hx & counterproductive in therapy.
- Contemporary approaches consider it to be a joint product of the therapist & CT & a potential source of info. about the CT & how other ppl may respond to the CT.
Adler's IndividuAl Psychology
Alfred Adler (Neo-Freudian)
Personality theory & approach to therapy stress:
- the unity of the indiv. &
- the belief that behavior is purposeful & goal-directed.
- Emphasis on Social Factors (Social Interest)
3 Key concepts are:
- Inferiority feelings: Devel during childhood as a result or real/percieved biological, psychological or social weakness
- Striving for Superiority: Inherent tendency toward "perfect completion," specific ways and idiv. chooses to compensate for inferiority & achieve superiority determines the style of life.
- Style of Life: Unifies the various aspects of an indiv. personality.
- Affected by early experiences w/in context of family & well-est. by 4-5 yrs old
Proposed that social interest is the primary characteristic that differentiates the 2 SOL:
- Healthy - Marked by goals that reflect optimism, confidence & concern about welfare of others
- Unhealthy (Mistaken) - Marked by goals that reflect self-centerdness, competitivness & striving for personal power.
Adler's Individual Psychology - View of Maladaptive Behavior
Maladaptive behavior represents a mistaken style of life that reflects inadequate social interest.
Ex: Pampered child doesn't devel. social feelings
Neglected child dominated by need for revenge
Adler's Individual Psychology- Teleological Approach
- Mental D/O's represent a unhealthy/mistaken SOL, characterized by maladaptive attempts to compensate for feeling of inferiority
- Regards behavior as being largely motivated by a person's future goals rather than determined by past events
Adler's Individual Psychology - Therapy Goals & Tx
Primary goals: overcoming feelings of inferiority & discouragment
- Est. collaborative rel. w/CT
- Help CT ID & understand SOL & irs consequences. To Id a SOL a:
"Lifestyle Investigation" - is used to provide info. about:
- CT's family constellation
- Fictional (hidden) goals
- "Basic Mistakes" (Distorted beliefs & attitudes)
- "Lifestyle Investigation" - is used to provide info. about:
- Re-orient Ct's beliefs & goals to support a more adaptive lifestyle
- Ppl are motivated primarily by an innate social interest & the goal in life is to act in ways that fulfill social responsibilities.
- There are 3 major life tasks:
- All involve social interactions (Socail factors)
Systematic Training for Effective Teaching (STEP) training based on whose theoretical approach?