Flashcards in Chapter 1-1.5 Deck (15)

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1

## Non arguments

###
1) explanation

2) advice

3) belief or opinion

4) reports

5) expository passages

6) illustrations

7) explanations

8) conditional statements

2

## Expository passage

### Begin with a topic sentence followed by one or more sentences to develop the topic

3

## Conditional statements

###
If (antecedent) then (consequent).

(Consequent) if (antecedent).

4

## Explanation

###
Explanandum- describes the event

Explanans- group of statements or statement that purports to do the explaining

5

## Deductive Argument

###
- if premise are true the conclusion is necessarily true

- goes from particular to general

1) arg based on math

2) arg by definition

3) categorical syllogism (all some or no)

4) hypothetical syllogism (if... Then)

5) disjunctive syllogism (either.. Or)

6

## Inductive argument

###
- it is improbable that the conc is false given that the premise are true

- goes from general to particular

1) prediction

2) arg from analogy

3) generalization

4) arg from authority

5) argument based on signs

6) casual inference (cause and effect)

7

## Valid argument

###
- is always deductive

- the reasoning is correct

8

## Sound argument

###
- always deductive

- must be valid and the premises all must be true

9

## Strong argument

###
- only inductive

- Improbable that the argument is false given that the premises are true

10

## To test strength

### Assume all premises are true and then determine if conclusion is probably true

11

## Cogent

###
- only inductive

- is a strong argument with all true premises

12

## Modus ponens

###
P1: If p, then q

P2: P

C: Q

Valid bc the reasoning is correct

13

## Affirming the consequent

###
P1: if p, then q

P2: q

C: p

Invalid form of reasoning because conclusion is not true

14

## Modus tollens

###
P1: if p, then q

P2: not q

C: not p

Valid

15