Flashcards in Chapter 4-4.5 Deck (12)

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1

## Categorical proposition

### - asserts that either all or part of the class denoted by the subject term is include or excluded from the class denoted by the predicate term

2

##
Standard form categorical proposition

###
1) quantifier -> all, no, some

2) subject term -> "members of the AMA" (before copula)

3) copula -> are and are not

4) predicate term -> "people holding degrees from recognized academic institutions" (after copula)

3

## Propositions

###
Proposition................Quantity..............Quality

1) All S are P (A) ....Universal.....Affirmative

2) No S are P (E).....Universal..... Negative

3) Some S are P (I)...Particular .. Affirmative

4) Some S are not P (O).. Particular ... Negative

4

## Existential Fallacy

###
- invalid merely because the premise does not exist

- Boolean standpoint (modern square)

- only used in contrary, subcontrary and subalternation (traditional) -> when universal goes to particular

5

## Boolean stand point

### - recognizes that particular statements make a positive assertion about existence

6

## Venn Diagrams

###
A) shade S side

E) shade middle

I) x in the middle

O) x in S side

7

## Modern Square of Opposition

###
- Boolean standpoint

Logically undetermined-> has truth value can't determine what it is

A---------E

I----------O

Contradictory -> opposite truth values

8

## Testing immediate inferences

###
- one premise and one conclusion

- plug premise into modern square of opposition

- if it works then it's unconditionally valid regardless of existential fallacy

- illicit contrary, illicit subcontrary, illicit subalternation, illicit contraposition, illicit conversion

9

##
1) Conversion

2) illicit conversion

###
1) switch subject and predicate terms

2) E,I -> same truth value.

A,O -> undetermined truth value

10

##
Obversion

###
- change the quality

- replace predicate term with compliment (non P)

- all true

11

##
1) Contraposition

2) illicit contraposition

###
1) switch subject and predicate terms

- replace subject and predicate term with compliments

2) E,I -> undetermined truth value.

A,O -> determined truth value

12