Flashcards in Ch 4 & 5 Test Deck (30)
Describe Greek Architecture.
A type of architecture based off of the post-and-lintel system. The post-and-lintel system is made up of columns, which are large upright posts, with a roof, or architrave, over the top.
How did the Greek Columns differ from their Egyptian counterparts?
Greek columns were often done in sections and stacked and made with softer stone like limestone.
What is the chief distinction of the Corinthian order that separates it from the Doric and Ionic?
The Corinthian order is especially flowery and decorative.
What is a caryatid? Identify one Greek building in which they are seen.
A sculpture instead of a column. The Erechtheum.
What Greek building is considered to be "absolutely right" from an architectural perspective?
What is an acropolis?
A citadel or fortified part of an ancient Greek city.
What is a Greek stoa?
A town center or marketplace which was mad of a colonnade placed in front of a solid wall decorated with paintings.
Describe a typical Greek house.
No windows, earth floors, reed mats, and made of sundries brick on stone foundation. And no doors.
What is a Greek tholos?
A cylindrical building form erected for the memorial of the dead, though sometimes used for other things.
What was the thronos?
Highly decorated, golden, shiny, formal chair of honor.
What woods were used in Greek furniture?
Maple and Olive wood
What was the function of the Kline?
It was a bed, served like the modern sofa, and also used as seating for dining.
Describe the klismos chair.
The wood side chair with curved back and curved legs. Lightweight and portable.
What cultures influenced Roman life and culture?
Greek & Etruscan
Describe concrete and why it was important in the development of Roman buildings.
Concrete was made from water, small pebbles, and magma. It let them build without using an excessive amount of material.
Identify the characters of the five Roman orders and how they differ from the Greek orders.
Roman Doric - sat on a base, more slender, reduced the height, enriched capital with molding than the Greek
Tuscan - sat on a base, smooth instead of fluted, the triglyphs and metopes were eliminated
Ionic - slender, greater height to diameter ratio, slightly smaller volutes, eliminated ornaments on neckings below the volutes
Corinthian - took full advantage of the elaborate decorative treatment
Composite - combines the corinthian and ionic, most elaborate and most slender/decorative.
Who was Vitruvius and what is he famous for?
An architect, wrote a treatise called De Architecture.
What are pilasters.
Fake decorative columns, stuck to walls.
What is the composition of the Pantheon?
Made of a circle within a rectangle.
What architecture of the forums influenced early Christian buildings?
What three types of residential accommodations existed in the Roman culture?
Domus, Insulae, and Villa
What early structures and systems were developed by Roman engineers?
Aqueducts, drainage & sewers, columns and arches
What building stands out as an example of the amphitheater? How many people did it accommodate?
The coliseum; 45,000-55,000 people
Give unique characteristics of Hadrian's villa.
Had porticos, banquet halls, big and small baths, temple, exercise ground.
Cite and describe the four wall styles evidenced in Pompeii.
1st Incrustation Style: faux marbre technique to imitate inlaid marble slabs
2nd Architectural Style: painted to resemble a building or colonnade, usually seen from within with open countryside visible beyond
3rd Ornate Style: still included architectural forms, but in a more ornamental way, among figures and landscapes.
4th Intricate Style: fantastic structures in grotesque and sometimes impossible arrangements.
From what culture did the Romans draw their inspiration for their furniture.
How did Roman ornament differ from that of the Greeks?
More elaborate, applied more lavishly, sometimes less refined, bronze castings and two-dimensional painting.
Where in Roman interiors did the use of glass have the greatest impact?
Glass in window openings.
What is mosaic work?
technique of facing surfaces with a layer of small, closely spaced particles of near-uniform size