Flashcards in Categorical Data: Chi-Square Deck (18)

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1

## What time of data is Chi-square used for?

### Nominal/categorical data.

2

## What is the Chi-square Goodness of Fit Test?

### Chi-square with one variable.

3

## What two types of frequency does the Goodness of Fit Test use?

### It compares the observed frequencies and expected frequencies.

4

## How do you calculate expected frequency in the Goodness of Fit Test?

### It is the number of participants / number of categories.

5

## What are the two ways to enter data in the Goodness of Fit Test?

### By participant or total frequency count.

6

## What should you weight cases by?

### Frequency.

7

## What is a weakness of Chi-square?

### Unable to tell which categories differ from which.

8

## What is the Chi-square Test of Association?

### Chi-square with two variables (also known as Pearson's Chi-square).

9

## How do you calculate expected frequency in the Test of Association?

### It is the (row total x column total) / grand total.

10

## How do you calculate degrees of freedom for the Test of Association?

### It is the (number of rows - 1) x (number of columns - 1).

11

## How do you know if results are significant in the Chi-square tests?

### The calculated statistic should be higher than the table value.

12

## How would you calculate the Odds of females studying Psychology compared to Engineering?

### Number of females studying Psychology / number of females studying Engineering.

13

## How would you calculate the Odds Ratio of females studying Psychology compared to males?

### Odds that females will study Psychology / Odds that males will study Psychology.

14

## Name the two main assumptions of Chi-Square.

###
Observations must be independent (each participant should only contribute to one contingency cell).

There should be adequate expected frequencies in each cell.

15

## What is the adequate expected frequencies in each cell?

### No more than 20% of the expected frequencies should have a value of less than 5.

16

## What is the solution for when expected frequencies exceed the 20% rule for contingency tables larger than 2x2?

### Collapse variables together.

17

## What is the solution for when expected frequencies exceed the 20% rule for 2x2 contingency tables?

### Use Fisher's Exact Test statistic instead of Pearson's Chi-square statistic (this can only be done when sample size is small).

18