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Flashcards in Critical Thinking Deck (19)
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What are the two components when analysing an argument?

Identifying components & Evaluating the strength of the argument.


What are the two necessary components when reaching a conclusion?

Evidence + Reasons.


State some important concepts when evaluating an argument's strength.

Is the conclusion logical from the evidence?
Is there alternative explanations?
Is the evidence sound?
Small effect size?
Are all terms clarified?


What are the four main areas for analysing methods?

Design, sample, measurement and analysis.


Name the two main issues of a cross-sectional correlational design.

Reverse causality & Third variable problem.


How can you control for the third variable problem?

Measure additional variables that might correlate with the IV and DV. Control for these variables.


What is selection bias and how can you control for it?

Selection bias is a systematic factor that affects who is in different groups. This can be controlled by randomisation (although this is not always possible).


Name a key strength and weakness of a longitudinal correlational design.

There is no reverse causality problem.
The 3rd variable problem is still present.


What is internal validity?

The ability to draw causal inferences from findings.


What is external validity?

The ability to generalise findings to other domains.


What is a confound variable? Name three ways to control it.

A confound variable is a variable which may be affecting the DV, therefore, the effect is not just caused by the IV.
Controlled by comparing results to a control condition, randomisation and using a within-subjects design (minimising individual differences).


What is stratified sampling?

This is where particularly variables are measured and these are then equally distributed across conditions.


What is representativeness?

The extent to which conclusions can be applied widely (to all of the relevant population).


What is ecological validity?

The extent to which the study reflects natural behaviour. Real world applications.


What is reliability?

Reliability is the consistency of a test.


What is validity?

How well a test measures what it claims to.


Define construct validity, predictive validity, content validity and face validity.

Construct validity: The extent to which a study measures the concept which it claims to.
Predictive validity: The extent to which results and conclusions can be used to predict real life applications of the study.
Content validity: The extent to which a study measures up against all the elements of the construct.
Face validity: The extent to which a study appears to measure what it claims to measure.


Name two weaknesses of the self-report measure.

Recall bias & Social desirability.


Why are blind/double-blind studies a strength?

Prevents the beliefs of the participants and experimenters influencing the responses collected.